Disability - resistant, long-lasting or permanent, impaired work capacity caused by chronic illness or pathological condition (congenital defects of the cardiovascular system, osteoarticular apparatus, organs of hearing, vision, Central nervous system, organs of blood and others).
The term "disability" includes legal and social concepts. For the establishment of disability should the termination or changes in working conditions and the purpose of various types of state social security (pension, employment, training, prosthetics and other), which guaranteed the Soviet legislation.
Examination of long-term or permanent disability is a medical labor expert commissions (VTEC) (see Medical labor examination).
The severity of disability may be different - from disabilities in main profession to the full disability in all kinds of professional activity.
Depending on the extent of the loss or limitation of capacity for work is established in relation to the disability group is the first, second, third.
The basis for the establishment of the first (1) the degree of disability is a violation of the functions of the body, which not only completely lost the ability to work, but the necessity of constant help, care or supervision.
The second (2) the disability group is established with significantly expressed functional disorders that do not cause the necessity of constant help, care or supervision, but lead to complete a long-term or permanent disability, or to a state when a patient may be available in certain types of labour only in specially created conditions.
Third (3) disability group is set to persons who, for health reasons cannot continue work in your main profession and occupation, equal qualifications, as well as persons who are not allowed to perform his work on epidemiological indications (e.g. tuberculosis). The transfer to another job, the reduction of labour activity or the nature and conditions of work are leading to lower qualifications. The third group of disability is also restrictedly students and persons under 40 years, requiring the acquisition of the specialty, as well as restrictedly persons with low qualification or without profession (for the period of training or retraining).
In order dynamic observation over the course of the pathological process and the state of working capacity systematically survey of disabled persons in the order established by the Regulations of VTEC. In some cases (presence of anatomical defects, chronic diseases with irreversible changes), the disability group is established for an indefinite term, reassessments.
In each case VTEC when determining the disability defines one of the following reasons: disability due to General disease, occupational disease, industrial injury and disability from childhood, disability prior to starting work. In accordance with this, civil law of the USSR sets various pension size and nature of other types of social assistance (see Social security). The definition of disability persons in the military-see Disability servicemen.
Disability give an idea about how morbidity, injuries and other medical conditions affect the work capacity of the population. The most important are the following indicators of disability: (a) intensive index of primary disability; b) the degree of severity of disability; b) distribution of newly recognised disabled by age groups; d) the share of newly recognised disabled by separate nosological forms; d) indicators of rehabilitation. Disability reflect the quality of organization of health, the effectiveness of treatment and prevention; the state of labour protection at industrial enterprises, in state farms, collective farms and other factors of socio-economic nature.
Prevention of disability are prevention of disease, injury, started in time, comprehensive, fully treatment, timely rational employment of the long ill (see Employment), improvement of working conditions and labor protection.
Cm. also Rehabilitation.