Iodine (Iodum, I) is a chemical element VII group of the periodic system of elements from a number of Halogens. Serial number 53, atomic weight 126,9044. In the most typical connections of iodine manifests itself by non-metal with valence-1. Iodine - dark grey lamellar crystals with metallic Shine; density 4,94, temperature melting 113,5°, temperature boiling 184,35 degrees. When heating is sublimated. Iodine is poorly soluble in water (1 : 5000); soluble in aqueous solutions of iodine (potassium and sodium), in alcohol, ether, acetone, chloroform and other organic solvents. And. is in the nature almost everywhere, mostly in the form of iodide salts. Iodine is a permanent part of the body and is of great importance for its development. Elementary iodine antimicrpobial. When applied to the skin and mucous irritating effect. Sucking, I. affects metabolism, strengthening the inhibition. Special influence iodine affects the thyroid gland.
When iodine deficiency introduction of drugs increases the formation of thyroxin. When hyperthyroidism iodine in small doses may inhibit the formation of thyroxin.
In medical practice, widely used following iodine preparations.
Iodine alcohol solution (Solutio Iodi spirituosa - 10, or 5%). Applied externally as an antiseptic, and as irritating and distracting way when skin diseases; myositis, neuralgia. Inside designate for the prevention of atherosclerosis (1 -10 drops of 5% tincture 1-2 times a day, a course up to 30 days). Take in 1/4 Cup milk Ambassador food.
The Lugol solution (Solutio Lugoli) is a solution of iodine in water solution of potassium iodide (part 1 of iodine, 2 parts of potassium iodide, 17 parts of water). Used for lubricating mucous membrane of the pharynx and larynx. In hyperthyroidism, Lugol solution assign inside on the 5-10 drops 2 times a day.
Potassium iodide (Kalium iodatum), sodium iodide (Natrium iodatum). Used in hyperthyroidism, endemic goitre, and inflammatory respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma, glaucoma, cataract. Appointed as solutions and mixtures at doses of 0.3 - 1 g per reception 3-4 times a day after meals.
Izbejat calcium (Calcium iodbehenicum, synonym sayodin) - calcium salt monojoke-genoway acid, contains 24% iodine. Apply for atherosclerosis, dry bronchitis, chronic rheumatism 0.5 g 1-3 times a day after meals. The course of treatment (two-three weeks) is repeated after two-week break.
The Iodinol (Iodinolum, list B)is a product of accession of iodine to polyvinyl alcohol. Applied in the form of 1% aqueous solution with chronic tonsillitis (4-5 washing tonsils at intervals of 2-3 days), gnanom otite (burying 5-8 drops or lavage within 2-4 weeks), atrophic rhinitis (spraying of the nasal cavity and pharynx 2-3 times a week for 2-3 months).
Iodine preparations are contraindicated with lung tuberculosis, jade, principally, acne, chronic piodermia, hemorrhagic diathesis, urticaria, pregnancy, increased sensitivity to iodine.
Prolonged use of drugs iodine, as well as increased sensitivity to them can lead to the phenomenon yodizma (cold, urticaria, swelling Kwinke, ugrevidnaya rashes and other).
Retain iodine banks orange glass with ground traffic in a cool dark place.

Radioactive iodine

The most widely in medicine and biology I use131 has a half-life 8,05 day; this isotope has a beta, and gamma rays (see Beta-rays, Gamma rays) is not very high energy. I131 get in nuclear reactors from fission products (fragments) of uranium.
Due to the fact that I131 gamma radiation his presence in the body can be determined with the help of instruments for measuring gamma radiation by placing the detector near the surface of the body over the investigated area. Making use of the corresponding calculations, it can thus be assessed and the amount I131 in this area. Registering an activity I131 in a sequential series of points, get the picture of the distribution I131 in areas of interest (see Scanning).
I131 is widely used to study the distribution, metabolism and physiological role of iodine in the body.
Inorganic salt, sodium or potassium I131 is used to study the function of the thyroid gland diagnostics and its disorders. With this order in different terms after the reception I131 inside examine its accumulation in the thyroid gland, the rate of excretion with urine and some more subtle indicators. This method is also used to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs intended for treatment of impaired function of the thyroid gland to detect functioning of metastatic thyroid cancer in the bones and other organs.
Because iodine is easily associated with many organic compounds, can get labeled I131 amino acids, dyes, fats, proteins, hormones, drugs. Labeled I131 albumin serum person's blood is used for studying the work of the heart and condition of blood circulation, absorption ability of the intestine to evaluate the functional capacity of the pancreas, to determine the location of brain tumors, etc., On the rate of accumulation in the liver and deducing from it labeled I131 paint a Bengal rose judged on the status of this body. To learn more about kidney used labeled I131 connection iodine-Hepburn.
When conducting such research patients injected into the blood to 300 mccoury I131, and in some cases and more.
Radioactive iodine is used for the treatment of diseases associated with increased function of the thyroid gland. This application is based on what is introduced into the body in the form of inorganic salts, iodine accumulates almost the whole of the thyroid gland, and beta radiation destroys the cancer cells, not penetrating, however, in the surrounding tissues.
To completely destroy the thyroid gland person, required several dozens of millicurie I131. Not allowed to use I131 women in pregnancy more than 12 weeks, because from that time on the thyroid gland of the fetus begins to accumulate iodine.
In view of the relatively short half-life and not very high energy gamma radiation (0,3 My) I131 is not dangerous, if in medical institutions complied with the sanitary rules of work with the radioactive isotope.