Ischemic heart disease

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  • Angina
  • Coronary heart disease is acute or chronic damage to the heart muscle due to a lack of blood supply to the myocardium because of pathological processes in coronary arteries.
    Among the diseases of the cardiovascular system ischaemic heart disease has the largest distribution. It is accompanied by a large loss of working capacity and high mortality. The emergence of this disease are contributing risk factors. Particularly damaging to the presence of multiple risk factors. For example, sedentary lifestyle and Smoking increase the possibility of the disease in 2-3 times. Clinical forms of ischemic heart disease are atherosclerotic infarction, stenocardia and myocardial infarction *.

    myocardial infarction
    Fig. 4. Myocardial infarction: And - a General view of the heart, B - section walls of the heart; 1 - arterial thrombosis; 2 - hearth necrosis

    Myocardial infarction - hearth ischemic necrosis in the heart muscle due to acute insufficiency of its blood supply (Fig. 4). The main factor for acute this failure is the obstruction of the coronary arteries (thrombosis, prolonged spasm narrowed artery). Important role in the development of myocardial infarction are disorders of hormonal and neurogenic factors that regulate metabolism in the myocardium. Acute (fast) obstruction of the lumen of the coronary artery, usually leads to krupnooptovom necrosis or extensive heart attack; narrowing of arteries to small necrosis or mikroinfarkt. Severe heart damage is transmural myocardial infarction, where necrosis affects the entire thickness of the muscles. The necrotic tissues are exposed resorption and substitution connective tissue, formed in the rumen.
    The disease begins with a rush of intense retrosternal pain, which lasts often for several hours. There are complications: shock, acute cardiac insufficiency, heavy tahiaritmii. On the 2-3rd day, increased body temperature, appears leukocytosis, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In the future, the disease can be complicated by the aneurysm of heart, anticoagulation. The diagnosis is confirmed electrocardiographic studies, which specify the extent and location of necrosis. Re electrocardiogram reveal the dynamics of scarring.
    Treatment begins with the use of drugs that relieves pain, reduces heart failure, warning repeated thrombosis.
    Patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized and pass system staging treatment and rehabilitation with the use of a large complex of medical and socio-hygienic measures. The primary means of rehabilitation is therapeutic physical culture, which applies at all stages of treatment.
    Currently, organized a three-stage rehabilitation system: stage I - hospital, II stage - sanatorium (the local rehabilitation center), stage III - patient.
    Depending on the severity of heart attack, hospital rehabilitation stage lasts 3 (at small uncomplicated heart attack) to 6 (extensive, transmural heart) weeks.
    In the treatment process, consistently applying motor regimes, Constantly expand the motor activity of the patient: the first stage - strict bed, advanced bed, ward (pruposely), total (free), phase II and phase III - sparing, sparing-training and coaching. These modes are typical and are applied for all other diseases of the cardiovascular system.

    * To avoid repetitions in the methodology of medical physical culture in the various forms of ischemic disease, the beginning is the most developed method of myocardial infarction, the other describes in comparison with it.