Artificial kidney

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Overtaking cars, rushing through the streets of Moscow "Ambulance". The recent turns and the machine stops at the entrance of the hospital. Quickly open doors limousine and stretchers with patients already in the emergency room.
The patient is unconscious, his rare wheezing ominously heard in the silence of the chamber, his face pale and puffy. The doctor leans over the sick - and in person he hits a sharp ammonia smell.
As usual, the doctor puts on the arm of the patient cuff blood pressure and presses the stethoscope to the elbow. Blood pressure improved significantly: the maximum is 180 mm, minimum - 110 millimeters of mercury (in norm 110/70 mm).
A few quick strokes of the hammer - normal reflexes are absent, the function of the nervous system are deeply depressed.
About the patient comes another physician of the clinical laboratory. Thin probirki one after another filled with blood. After a few hours it will become known the results of chemical analyses.
Meanwhile, therapeutist out into the corridor, where it awaits the wife of the patient. From her confused, broken sobs story he learns that the patient's condition worsened dramatically few hours ago. About a week he had a high fever, headache, back pain, noted puffiness of the face. Urine was reddish; in the study in the laboratory clinic it was discovered protein. A few days ago the number of urine has sharply decreased, and in the last three days it is almost not allocated.
Uremia is decided by the doctor. Severe coma! For the life of the patient will have to fight!
What happened to the sick? How to help him? There is great hope for his recovery?
But before answering these questions, explain the meaning of the word "uremia". In Greek "Uros" - "urine", "heme" - "blood". Thus, in the Russian language the word "uremia" could be translated as "mccrobie", that is, the accumulation in the urine of such substances, which are normally excreted by the kidneys in the urine. The cause of this condition in the patient, which were discussed above, is sharp, has quickly developed, functional failure of the kidneys is weakening, and then complete cessation of urine output.
As long as the organism lives, in all its cells, there are complex chemical transformations - metabolism, which produces a range of final products of this exchange, a kind of "waste", " waste. Part of these final products of metabolism is the result of complex processes of oxidation of carbon and hydrogen organic substances and in the end turns into carbon dioxide and water. Almost all of the carbon dioxide derived from exhaled air through the lungs. This way is partially removed and the water that is in the form of vapor saturates the exhaled air. Part of the water out from the body in the form of so-called "invisible evaporation and by transpiration through the skin surface.
Nitrogen, which is a part of proteins, without which there can be no life, not undergo such a deep transformation, as the carbon and hydrogen. Final cleavage products nitrogenous organic substances in the body of humans and animals is urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine and some other. All nitrogenous organic matter is crystal with a relatively small value of the molecule. They are soluble in water and can be eliminated from the body only in the form of water solutions. The selection of these substances occurs mainly through the kidneys, they will be deleted in the urine, which is quite concentrated their solution.
In addition, the composition of urine includes a number of mineral salts (chlorides, phosphates, sulphates), also constantly released in the body in the process of metabolism. Minor amounts of nitrogenous substances and salts leave our body and then with that due to the chemical composition is sometimes referred to as a diluted urine.
The delay in the body of nitrogenous substances and subsequent poisoning them is the basis of uraemia with significant violations of the kidney.
Due to the fact that the formation of nitrogen products occurs in all cells of the body and blood is the only "vehicle"carrying these substances from the tissues of the kidneys, the name "uremia" is not entirely accurate. When the delay of these substances in the body they accumulate not only in the blood, but literally flooded with all cellular and intercellular liquid of organism, the volume of which considerably exceeds volume of blood.
According to modern physiology, in the body of a person weighing 70 kilograms, contains about 45 liters of water, of which 32 litres are inside the cells, about 9-10 liters in intercellular spaces and only about 3.5 liter is part of the liquid part of blood (plasma).