Laboratory studies of gastric cancer

In connection with atrophic processes concomitant or preceding the development of cancer, defined in the gastric contents quantity of hydrochloric acid in cancer sharply reduced, often to none. However, in 5-15% of all patients the quantity of hydrochloric acid may be within normal limits, and 1-2% is determined hyperacid state. The latter is more common in those patients whose cancer has evolved from ulcers. Study of gastric juice in our patients showed with cancer of the normal content of free hydrochloric acid 8.3%, high - 1,8%. It is characteristic, that the more similar clinical picture with the picture of stomach ulcers, the more often and the more are found in the gastric contents hydrochloric acid. In stomach cancer often increases the difference between numbers, total and free hydrochloric acid. This is due to the increase in total acidity due to organic acids produced during fermentation stagnation of gastric contents. In particular appear oil, acetic and lactic acids. We must bear in mind that the appearance of lactic acid is inherent to cancer, and the stagnation of the contents in the stomach in violation evacuation of any origin. A study to produce a thin probe, fractional. When microscopy in the gastric contents often find particles old food, yeast fungi, sticks lactic fermentation and in particular amount of blood. Thus because of the impact on the hemoglobin hydrochloric acid hydrochloric acid is formed gelatin, and therefore gastric content becomes black and red and often takes the form of coffee grounds.
Upon careful examination under a microscope sviewsetup gastric content can be found cancer cells, their complexes or more significant pieces of the tumor tissue. Detection of cancer cells in recent years, placing more and more emphasis. Study the sediment wash water in the native form or staining of smears that according to some reports, allows to detect the cancer cells in almost half of patients with gastric cancer [Shchukarev N. K., 1954].
The best results are obtained by sampling a special abrasive cylinders, which are injected into the stomach. By removing the cylinder is removed from its surface scraping fresh cells and tissue is examined under a microscope [Shevchenko I. A., 1963]. Use the probe-cylinders, nylon brushes, platinum loop, study swabs taken with the tumor surface when fibrogastroskopii [the Possibilities of the endoscopic method..., 1974]. At last the way, the authors obtained in various forms tumors from 63,6 up to 98% of matching diagnoses. However, cytological method of study to this time has not received wide acceptance in practice surgical departments, as detection of cancer cells and their differentiation requires from the researcher's a very special high qualification and great experience. Nor was there a significant role in the practical diagnostics of a cancer of a stomach and a variety of samples conducted in the study of gastric contents. For example, tetracycline, difenilamina, gexokinaza samples and many others, with an equally small value.
The study Kala is performed to detect the presence of blood. When cancer bleeding is seldom abundant enough blood in the stool can be determined macroscopically in appearance Kala, which becomes tarry. Usually when starting the collapse of the tumor, causing her to pitting, the blood poured out in the stomach all the time, but in very small amounts, so that you can detect it in Calais is possible only by applying the most sensitive chemical reaction occult blood. Of them the greatest distribution have the reaction of yens Gregersen collection and Weber. These reactions require 3-4-day preparation of the patient by assigning it a diet from which completely excludes all meat and fish products containing chlorophyll vegetables. According to the Institute of Oncology. N. N. Petrov, in stomach cancer reaction is always positive in 98% [a holding S. A., 1970]. We must bear in mind that the presence of blood in the stool can be and other diseases - stomach ulcers, polyps, the wounded leiomyoma, hemorrhagic gastritis, etc. Thus, the positive reaction occult blood is not an absolute sign of cancer of the stomach. However, the presence of negative reactions with repeated testing makes known hopes for the absence of cancer. However, we must remember that in infiltrative forms of cancer, growing without Express ulceration, bleeding may be missing altogether. Although rare, but it has to meet.
In the study of the peripheral blood for gastric cancer characterized by hypochromic anemia and hypoproteinemia. The degree of these changes depends on the degree of blood loss, malnutrition and intoxication, caused by the presence of cancer. Often the amount of hemoglobin and erythrocytes reaches extremely low numbers. Equally significantly reduced and the protein content in the blood. The first time is decreased and the number of leukocytes. However, the disintegration of a tumour and development in it and in surrounding tissue infection, the number of cells undergoing the same changes as in each regular septic infection. The presence of gastric cancer in itself does not make any changes ESR, so the features of this reaction cannot serve as a basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Such changes in blood often absent when ostalnom cancer, that is when cancer localized in the input or output holes stomach and violates their permeability so that develops dehydration. In such cases, despite the depletion of the patient study of the peripheral blood may special deviations from the norm is not to show.
Attempts to find in the study of blood of any response, specific for stomach cancer, positive results to this time has not led.
Using the feature of cancer cells selectively accumulate a certain substances, used to identify their various radioactive isotopes, for example - radioactive phosphorus R, which is injected under the skin, and after a certain time determined using a special probe radioactivity in different parts of the stomach. In the area of location of the tumor, it should be more.
In a recent study using isotopes used for detection of gastric cancer and metastases it by scanning.
In Japan since 1952, is used for the diagnosis of gastric cancer "gastrocamera" - the device allowing to make a photo of all the departments of the gastric mucosa. This method was used for early cancer detection by prophylactic examinations and in the USSR. Conducted research, the authors give it high marks [Lutsevich E. V. and others, 1977].
Instrumental exploration of the stomach using conventional inflexible gastroscopes in the diagnosis of cancer rarely brought substantial benefits. The trauma research is required and the small possibility of a detailed inspection of all departments gastric wall explain the lower the spread of this method in practice.