The study of protein metabolism

Quantitative determination of serum proteins. Changes in the protein composition of the blood, not as a specific manifestation of the liver disease, reflect the nature of the pathological process (inflammation, necrosis, growth, and others), as well as the violation of protein function P. and reticulo-gistiotitarnaya system. There are various physical and chemical methods of quantitative determination of serum proteins refractometric methods, colorimetric methods (biuret methods), apelomatics ways and electrophoretic separation. The normal value for total protein whey when using methods based on salting out, from 7 to 8 g%, of which a 3.5-5,1 g% albumin and 2.5-3.5 g% globulin. The ratio of the number of albumin to the amount of globulin (see Albumin-globulin ratio) is 1.5 to 2.3. Electrophoretic analysis (see Electrophoresis) gives the following norm of the relation of individual protein fractions (%) : albumin - 55-60; A1-globulins - 2,1-3,5; A2-globulin - 7,2-9,1; beta-globulin - 9,1 - 12,7; '-globulin - 16-18 total protein content. Hyperproteinemia observed in chronic hepatitis and postnecrotic cirrhosis. Hypoproteinemia - often with portal cirrhosis, especially with ascites.
The fall in the number of serum albumin as a result of violations of their synthesis in Petrograd is observed in severe forms of hepatitis, long-term mechanical jaundice and especially in patients with cirrhosis P. (in 85% of cases). Almost permanently marked increase ' -globulin with cirrhosis P. (often with postnecrotic), chronic hepatitis, defeated extrahepatic biliary tract, accompanied by infection, and primary cancer P. Typically increase of the percentage of beta globulins combined with a high level of serum lipid; increasing the number A2-globulin is observed in chronic hepatitis, inflammation of the bile ducts, long-term mechanical jaundice. A particularly sharp increase in the content of the A2-globulin indicates the possibility of malignant neoplasms of the liver. When severe cirrhosis P. on electrophoregram increased and merge b - and V-globulin fractions.
Sediment samples. These samples can indirectly judge the state of protein in the blood and to some extent about functional state of P. the Results of sediment samples depend not only on the ratio and nature in the serum protein fractions of blood, but also on the presence of non-protein substances (lipids, electrolytes and other)associated with the protein.
Sublimate the sample is based on the deposition of serum proteins solution of mercuric chloride. The results are expressed in milliliters of solution of sublimate, added up to obtain Muti (norm 1,8-2,2 ml). This sample is more positive chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis P., rarely with acute hepatitis. Positive sublimate the sample is also observed in other inflammatory diseases (pneumonia, pleurisy, acute nephritis and others).
Trial of Veltman (see Veltman coagulation tape) shortened (to the left) in acute inflammatory processes and extended (right shift) in chronic processes. Damage of the liver parenchyma are usually to the prolongation of coagulation tape.
Thymol test based on electrophotometric determining the degree of turbidity serum relatively standard solutions through 30 minutes after addition of the thymol reagent. Indicators are indicated in units of light absorption (rate of 1.5%). This sample reflects the more inflammatory response than direct liver cell damage. The sample is positive when bestellung hepatitis, fatty dystrophy P., with cirrhosis P. Improving thymol turbidity samples at the end of acute hepatitis may indicate his transition into a chronic form.
Sample Takata-Ara - sediment from whey proteins on the addition of mercuric chloride, soda and Magenta. In normal conditions precipitate is formed by the famous dilutions of the serum. Diseases of P. it is formed with a wider boundaries dilution of serum.
Positive at loss flocculent precipitate after 24 hours of not less than three consecutive test tubes, weakly positive when precipitation in two test tubes.
Reaction is always positive chronic hepatitis, his transition into cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis, and rarely with acute hepatitis. The reaction this also positive with other inflammatory diseases (pleurisy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and others).
Nespecificescoe sediment samples reduces their value as functional tests P., but they reflect dynamics of development of pathological process (urgency, severity, complications). It is expedient to apply them in complex samples and electrophoretic study of protein fractions.
Ammonia blood. To determine the content of ammonia in the blood is most often used method isometric distillation of Conway. Normally the content of ammonia in the venous blood is extremely low or zero. The level of ammonia improve when gantries system collaterals that delivers blood with a high content of ammonia from the intestine directly to the venous network. A significant increase of ammonia in the blood is in hepatic coma.
Glycoproteins blood are high-molecular complexes built from protein and mucopolysaccharides. Glycoproteins can be determined by electrophoresis on paper. In blood glycoproteins found in all fractions of proteins. Their average content in the albumin is 20,8%; A1-globulin-18,6%; A2-globulin-24,8%; on the beta-globulin-22,3%; V-globulins of 13.7%. In addition, can be used more simple difenilamina reaction to protein-free filtrate of the blood serum is added difenilamina reagent).
At Botkin's disease and chronic diseases P. during periods of exacerbation increased content of alpha-glycoproteins, '-glycoproteins and reduced level of glycoproteins in albumin fraction; indicator difenilamina reactions are also a significant part of these patients increased. When severe cirrhosis is reduced level glycoprotein factions albumin, and A1 and A2-glycoproteins, with an increase in the number of glycoproteins indicator difenilamina reactions is sharply reduced. The largest increase in the content of A1 and A2-glycoproteins are observed in cancer of the liver.