Forensic medical examination of liquid blood in cases of disputed paternity, maternity and replacement children

Group signs of Packed red blood cells, serum, leukocyte and isozyme systems are inherited according to certain rules. At the same time in the baby's blood can be only those properties that are in the blood parents. Based on this determination of origin of the child from a specific parent.
Currently has only categorically exclude the defendant appearing as a possible father or mother of the child. Categorical as the establishment of paternity in the group factors of blood until it is practically impossible. In cases, when the blood of the child defines a property that is not in the mother and the alleged father, paternity is excluded. The greater the number of different systems of blood will be examined, the more likely exception of paternity.
The severity of the group antigens of some systems of blood in the first months of a child's life is quite low, in connection with which such research should be conducted not earlier than six months from the day of birth.
During examination of disputed paternity of the child, the mother and the alleged father's (defendant's) take blood, install it the one or the other antigens studied blood systems and on this basis make a conclusion about the possibility of birth of the child from the parents of the couple, considering peculiarities of the inheritance of individual systems of blood (table. 16). If the mother of the alleged father or the child had received a blood transfusion, in such cases, the study should be carried out after a certain time after the transfusion, as antigens transfused blood for some time can distort the true blood of this person. Recently there appeared reports that for the establishment of paternity can be used features of the location structural elements of DNA, which is the individual and inherited. In this extremely promising area of further research is needed.

Table 16. Variants of succession of some factors of blood.

Checklist
1. Let the definition of "material evidence".
2. Make a list of what is material evidence in forensic against.
3. Describe the importance of blood in solving crimes.
4. What questions can be solved in the study of blood?
5. What is the role of the expert (specialist) in the identification, examination, seizure and direction to the study of objects, similar to blood?
6. How to install the origin of the blood stains and its species?
7. What blood you know which methods they ustanovlenie
8. What is the basis for the definition of gender blood stains?
9. How is the amount of liquid blood and formed a spot?
10. What is the basis for the proof prinadlejnosti blood (spot) of the pregnant woman?
11. In what cases it is possible to identify the origin of the blood (spot) specific corpse?
12. What is the basis for a conclusion about the possibility or impossibility of origin of blood (spot) from a specific person? Is it possible categorical statement toiletries blood (spot) to a specific person?
13. Is it possible categorical determining the origin of the child from individual men?
14. What is the basis for establishing the origin of the child from particular parents?
15. Whether a definitive statement about the origin of the child from specific women?
16. In what cases it is possible categorical exclusion of the defendant as a possible father of the child?