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Forensic medical examination of blood stains

  • Expert examination of traces of blood
  • Forensic medical examination of liquid blood in cases of disputed paternity, maternity and replacement children
  • Material evidence, according to senior 83 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR, are items that have served as means of crime or been the object of criminal actions of the accused, as well as money and other valuables acquired by criminal way, and all other items that can serve as a means for detection of crime, the establishment of actual circumstances of the case, to identify the perpetrators or to refute the accusations or to mitigate the guilt of the accused. As material evidence in forensic practice examines biological objects - blood, semen, hair, sweat, saliva, nasal discharge and vaginal, urine, feces, bones, tissues and organs that are on the subject of the crime, the clothing of the victim or suspect. According to senior 69 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR material evidence in the Soviet criminal proceedings are one of the types of evidence.
    Forensic medical examination of material evidences is made only on the basis of the investigator or the court in the biological departments of the Bureau of forensic medical examination. When sending for expertise together with a cover ratio and a resolution on the appointment of the examination are sent copy of the Protocol of examination of the scene, a copy of the conclusion of forensic medical examination of the body, the examination of alive persons or extracts from them; the copy of the Protocol of seizure samples of blood, saliva, hair, if any, were seized. The decree outlines the circumstances of the case, subject to permission issues, the list is directed on the study of objects with their facilities, the content of the testimony of witnesses, accused persons, victims regarding the origin of traces that are available on the items listed the materials directed as blood, saliva, hair, etc.
    Having studied carefully presented by the investigator or the court materials, expert-biologist examines the parcel with material evidence, checks its safety. At infringement of integrity of packages expert shall inform the investigating authorities, in the presence of two employees of the laboratory opens the package and checks the presence of submitted material evidence listing them in the decision of the investigator or the court. When there is a divergence of the act, which specifies the set difference. The act is signed by the expert and two laboratory staff present at opening of a parcel. One copy of the act shall be sent to the investigator. Then the examiner may proceed with the examination of evidence. If necessary, the expert may additionally request the investigator samples of blood, saliva, hair, and other Physical evidence at the end of the study are Packed and returned together with the expert opinion of the investigator or the court.
    Traces of blood can be detected on the instrument of crime, on clothing and the body of the offender and on the surrounding objects, clothing and the body of the victim and others
    In their study Now can be solved the following questions.
    1. Is there blood in the studied object?
    2. Whether blood stain human or animal?
    3. What kind of animals belongs blood stain?
    4. Can the blood belong to a specific person (the suspect, the victim and others) or affiliation blood such person is excluded?
    5. Whether the blood man or woman?
    6. Whether the blood of an adult or the child?
    7. From what area of the body is blood in the spot?
    8. What is the prescription of education spots?
    9. What is the amount of streamed blood and formed a spot?
    10. Whether the blood of a pregnant woman?
    11. Not established whether the stain is menstrual blood?
    12. Established whether the spot with the blood of a living person or a corpse?
    13. What is the mechanism of formation of blood?