The study should be comprehensive

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The doctor-ophthalmologist (eye specialist) with the help of a special device with a mirror directs the rays of the electric light bulb through the pupil into the depth of the eyes of the patient. Becomes fully visible eye - pink mesh jacket, artery and vein of the fundus and, finally, the nipple of the optic nerve - a small, with clear boundaries bulging nerve at the occurrence of it in the eyeball.
But the doctor sees sharp changes in the fundus: nipple to the optic nerve became swollen, border him stosowany and almost indistinguishable; the arteries have become twisted and narrow, and Vienna, on the contrary, increased. And then the doctor writes the conclusion in history: "Stagnant nipples optic nerves".
This terrible symptom means that the patient has increased intracranial pressure. Most often it occurs when tumors or brain abscesses. Detection of congestive nipple is for neurosurgeon alarm. There is an urgent need to prepare the patient for surgery, as congestive nipples necessarily lead to a rapid reduction of vision and even blindness.
Here is another example. A special study of the doctor-ophthalmologist establishes that the patient has "dropped out" of certain parts of zeros of view. For example, the patient suddenly ceased to see an object that appears in the right wing, left wing or outside halves of the field of view. Well knowing the anatomy of the brain, knowing exactly where take place in the brain of the optic nerve pathways, the doctor determines the area of the brain that is damaged or destroyed painful process.
In many cases, a neurosurgeon provide invaluable help of special methods of diagnostics. In particular, the great value has x-ray examination.
If after wounds in the head in the brain remained bone or metal objects or, for example, bullet or other foreign body, and they themselves, and their location will be clearly visible in images of the skull.
On plain x-rays of the head, the brain is not visible - marked only the bones of the skull. However, in some cases, changes in the bones of the skull, which are marked on the pictures, is very important for the diagnosis of the disease. Here is an example. In the bones of the Central part of the skull base has a small, about the size of a cherry, deepening called the Turkish saddle. In this pit, like a nut in the half shell, is the pituitary gland is the most important gland of internal secretion. Turkish saddle very well visible on profile x-ray images are ready.
For tumors of the pituitary gland, which we describe below, are developing significant changes to the Turkish saddle. A growing tumor gradually as if pushing hardest bone wall of the saddle, and it is several times bigger. Sometimes the radiologist or surgeon enough to see on the picture is destroyed Turkish saddle so (of course, with proper evaluation of all other symptoms) to accurately determine if the patient has a pituitary tumor.
In some cases, when accurately determine the location of the brain tumor is especially difficult, the brain surgeon and radiologist have to resort to more complex methods.
...In the Central parts of the brain there is a system of cavities, which constantly produces and circulates colorless and transparent, like water, brain fluid. These cavities (there are four of them) are called ventricles. They as well as the substance of the brain, not seen on conventional images, as contained in the ventricles liquid delay of X-rays in the same way that the surrounding matter of the brain.

Introduction of air into the system of the brain ventricles allow to see on x-rays. In the presence of tumors of the brain ventricles and squeezed shifted in the opposite direction.