Water supply sources

Sources of water - surface (rivers, reservoirs), groundwater and interstratal water that are essential for local (decentralized or centralized water supply. Water supply sources differ on the origin, amount of water, its quality and sanitary safety, i.e. the possibility of changes and deterioration of water quality. The most often for centralized water use of surface and cross water. Deep cross (artesian) of water more reliable sanitary condition. Ground water is less suitable for household purposes. They are used for decentralized water supply (see Wells). Surface water sources (rivers, reservoirs) are the most abundant and slightly mineralized. They are easily soiled surface and require special treatment and disinfection (see Purification of drinking water). In areas where there is irrigation system, as sources of water use irrigation channels. In recent years in connection with increase of water consumption in large cities and industrial centers for household and industrial needs use artificial reservoir, hosted by flow regulation of large rivers.
When choosing water sources are special standard (GOST 2761-57 "Sources of centralized drinking water supply"), which defines the quality of water and the conditions under which the source can be used for centralized water supply. Based on the experience of operation of modern water supply stations, identify a number of water quality standards water source, which can be provided with appropriate cleaning and disinfection of the necessary quality of drinking water. Such standards include the number of coliform bacteria in 1 l of water (not more than 10 000), dry matter content (not more than 1000 mg/l), sulphates (not more than 500 mg/l)chloride (not more than 350 mg/l), smell (not more than 3 points). At the same time the quality of water can be used sanitary indicators: water oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand (MIC), ammonium nitrogen, nitrites and nitrates, and others by which one can judge about the pollution of water supply sources of organic substances. When choosing a water source mandatory assessment of natural and local (sanitary conditions in the surrounding area (see Zone of sanitary protection). To sanitary conditions include: population density and construction of residential and industrial objects, the status of an accomplishment of settlements, the presence of sources of pollution, waterlogging and other
When choosing a water source or current sanitary control study of water running in the amount specified in GOST 2761 - 57. In the preparation of sanitary conclusions according to the data of laboratory analysis of the obtained results are compared with the norms of GOST. When sanitary surveillance of artesian waters is very important data mapping long-sanitary laboratory control. Permanence of water and compliance with characteristic natural composition always proves the reliability of the source of water for sanitary conditions and the absence of danger of organic and bacterial pollution.
For decentralized water supply, especially in rural areas, use of mine and tubular (Abyssinian) wells. Sanitary requirements to arrangement and content of the wells public areas set out in the regulations, approved by UGSI 10. VII. 1946
When examining the sources of water supply are applied organoleptic, chemical, physical, biological, helminthological and other research methods. The procedure of sampling when the water supply is determined by GOST 2761-57 and its annexes, in the quality control of water in the water - GOST 2874-54.
The sanitary supervision are obliged to carry out constant control over a condition of water sources.