Historical sketch of the development of the national Pediatrics

Pediatrics (from the Greek words pais - boy, the child and iatreia - therapy) as an independent medical discipline emerged only in the first half of the XIX century, but already in the XVIII century the importance of measures in the area of child health care in Russia are reflected in the works of the most outstanding scholars of the time.
So, the great Russian scientist M. Century Lomonosov (1711-1765) paid great attention to the issues of protection of children's health. In his letter (1761) I. I. Shuvalov, the official of the reign of Elizabeth, Lomonosov puts forward a number of important issues facing the state, and puts the question "about reproduction and preservation of the Russian people". In this letter he outlines the main activities in the health of Russian people points to the need for government support to maternity and postpartum women, defines measures of child morbidity and mortality.
A great role in the development of public child care played I. I. Betskoy (1704-1795), statesman of the time. His designs were opened orphanage in Moscow (1764) and in S. Petersburg (1771); they were very detailed instructions and rules on the organization of these children's institutions for the care of children and their education.
The issues of national and, in particular, children's health was worried minds advanced, revolutionary intellectuals of the second half of the XVIII century. In conditions of the then-existing state system, of course, it was impossible to achieve any significant results; many were persecuted for their advanced thought.
One example is the fate of prominent thinkers of the second half of the XVIII century - a major public figure, writer and pedagogue N. I. Novikov (1744-1818) and the revolutionary writer A. N. Radishchev (1749-1802), in its progressive literary activity gave much attention to the health of children.
In the second half of XVIH century pediatric issues a number of works devoted scientists-doctors of different specialties.
So, the first Russian Professor therapist Moscow University semen Gerasimovich, Zabelin (1736-1802) in their practical and research work has paid much attention to the health of children. Being an ardent supporter of breastfeeding, he in his writings gives instructions and rules of breast-feeding; many of these provisions remain correct until the present time.
An even greater role played Nestor Maksimovich Primakov-Ambodik (1744-1812), rightly called the father of Russian obstetrics. Round educated, he was the first Russian scholar and obstetrician, left a number of original papers on health protection of mother and child. The author expresses in them right thoughts for the care and upbringing of children, sharply criticizes complicated recipes, objected to the use of untested drugs, interprets many of the pathological processes. He was the first in Russia began to teach their science in Russian, and it can be called a founder of the Russian obstetric terminology.
Primakov-Ambodik was not only a great scientist, but also an ardent promoter of scientific knowledge. It is impossible not to note that this original thought in Russian scientific and practical doctor, dearly loved their country and their people, endured a hard struggle with foreigners seeking to seize Russian science into their own hands and spreading speculative principles in medical practice.
The big role in promotion of ideas of child health played a free-economic society that emerged in the second half of the XVIII century. In 40-ies of the XIX century the activities of this society has quickened, were grouped around him the best representatives of medicine of that time. It has done much in the organization of opepreveria in Russia, analyzed the causes of high morbidity and mortality of children, published a popular book on combating childhood diseases, developed measures to reduce them.
One of the active members of free-economic society was Kondraty Grum (1793-1874), who wrote many popular books and articles on parenting issues, prevention and treatment of their diseases. He owns a large three-volume scientific-popular "Guide to the upbringing, education and health of children" (1843-1848). For many years because the Groom were issued (from 1833) folk-medical newspaper "One health", which has consistently placed a significant number of papers and articles on the issues of child care, his diseases and their treatment.

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