Changes in the amount of urine

Daily quantity of urine (diuresis) average 1200-1500 Jr.
Polyuria. The increase in the daily diuresis - polyuria - observed for excessive drinking, when the elimination of edema, in the use of diuretics. Increase diureza also notes diabetes, nesharnyi diabetes, nephrosis, wrinkled kidney and other forms of chronic renal failure. The delay in the blood various toxins exchange due to insufficient concentrate ability kidney and low specific gravity of urine is compensated by the increase in the amount of urine.
Oliguria. Fever, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure accompanied by a lowering of the daily amount of urine - by oliguria. The latter is observed also at greater blood loss, in a stage of rise edema, ascites, pleural effusion, with far-reaching destructive process in both kidneys, such as tuberculosis, kidney stones.
Anuria. Complete cessation of receipt of urine in the bladder is called anuriei. There are three types of anuria: secretory, excretory and reflex.
Secretory anuria is called, for example, fall in blood pressure below 50 mm RT. Art. (shock, collapse). Spasm of the renal vessels, diffuse glomerulonephritis, heavy principally in the administration of sublimate, necrosis of renal epithelium through transfusions of blood incompatible, sepsis, extensive burns are the most common cause of secretory anurii.
Excretory (obstructive) anuria is the result of mechanical obstacles to the flow of urine from the kidneys, such as obstruction of both ureters or ureter only kidney stones or sulfa salts. Last sometimes in large numbers precipitate urine and fill the tubules of the kidneys, pelvis, cups and ureter. Anuria in these cases is not only excretory, but secretion, as salt of sulfonamides, clogging of diverting the way, at the same time damage and kidney epithelium.
Excretory anuria may occur at the compression of the ureter tumor originating from the uterus, prostate or bladder.
Termination of functions of both kidneys sometimes observed after administration in the urethra burza, catheter or cauterizing substances, after surgical interventions - a reflex anuria. Very rare anuria due Reno-renal reflex, i.e. the termination of the functions of the kidneys due to blockage or compression of the ureter the other kidney.
Anuria is a life-threatening condition. In the first 4-5 days - in the so-called period of endurance increased excretion of nitrogen and other toxins is carried out by the stomach, intestines, liver, sweat glands. In the future, a period of uremic poisoning: a rapidly growing accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous substances, toxic compounds of potassium, chloride, sulphate, acid (uremic acidosis), and in 10-12 days after the occurrence of anuria, and sometimes later, the patients die from uremic coma. Extremely toxic compounds of potassium, which, if their concentration above 0,1% can cause paralysis of the heart and skeletal muscles.
Treatment excretory anuria is to eliminate its causes - the removal of stones, tumors, sulfa salts etc. Symptomatic measures include limitation of protein foods, intravenous or subcutaneous injection of fluids, not more than 1 liter per day, inside alkali - Borjomi mineral water, soda (5-8 g per day), drip enemas from alkaline solutions. In the early stages is applied perinephral novocaine blockade.
In the administration of sublimate, or other drugs mercury anuria called necrosis of renal epithelium. Necrosis is supported thrombosis of vessels feeding canals. To ensure anuria apply the peritoneal dialysis and artificial kidney (see Uremia).