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Methods of study of alcoholism

The problem of alcoholism that has many aspects (medical, social, psychological), requires a comprehensive approach. "The struggle with alcoholism remains barren, wrote a famous specialist in social hygiene A. Century mol'kov, " if it is not justified preliminary study of the characteristics of a given place and time. To understand all this is possible only through a close examination" [mol'kov A. Century, 1926].
In pre-revolutionary Russia began to develop methodological approaches to the Study of alcoholism as a Social problem. Statistics of alcoholism, its socio-economic causes, effects on morbidity and mortality of the population have become a subject of study Commission on the issue of alcoholism and measures of struggle with it, organized in 1898 when the "Russian society for the preservation of national health". The main method of work of the Commission consisted in the preparation and discussion of scientific papers on various aspects of the problem. The reports and expressed their opinions are then published in special issues, entitled "work of the Commission on the issue of alcoholism", published on the Association's assets. The Commission has published valuable material about the spread of alcoholism in Russia, tried to address some of the legal issues associated with involuntary treatment of patients with alcohol [Nizhegorodtsev M. N., 1905, 1909]. Initiative in the programme for the study of alcoholism among the population of Moscow province belongs Century I. Yakovenko (1898). Psychiatrists So, Kroll (1896), N. I. Grigoriev (1900), A. M. Korovin (1915) were the authors of valuable studies on the impact of alcohol on morbidity, mortality and crime.
In the beginning of XX century there has been interest in the causes of the spread of alcoholism among certain population groups. The study of the prevalence of alcoholism among the workers were devoted to the works of N. I. Grigoriev, alcohol consumption and its impact on the health of children and adolescents has been studied in detail A. Korovin, M. (1908), G. I. Gordon (1910), and other
By studying the data of the questionnaires, the authors determined the dependence of alcohol use and the spread of alcoholism from wages, conditions of work and life, literacy workers. In addition to statistics on the spread of alcoholism, the authors drew the materials budget surveys [A. Shcherbina, 1900; A. Prokopovich, 1908; Magidov B. M., 1910; Voronov D., 1916].
The results of these studies showed widespread the use of alcohol among children and teenagers, students of secondary and higher educational institutions, and also opened the harmful effects of alcohol on the physical and moral development of students. The main cause of widespread alcoholism among children, the authors considered the influence of alcohol adults, especially parents and relatives, the desire to imitate and other senior
Social-hygienic approach to the problem of alcoholism can be traced in studies of special scientific and medical issues, in particular, the question of the role of heredity in the origin of alcoholism [Korovin, A. M., 1907]. Alcoholism as a social phenomenon paid attention in a number of interesting works Century M. Bekhterev (1912, 1913).
Social-hygienic aspects of the study of alcoholism have been widely developed after the great October socialist revolution when the alcohol and alcoholism became a state task. Especially intensively these studies took place in the 20-ies. A great role in organization and conducting of studies on alcoholism played created in 1923, the Institute of social hygiene SCP RSFSR.
Under the leadership of the first Director of the Institute of social hygiene A. Century Malikova are developed by scientific-methodological principles and approaches to the study of alcoholism as a socio-hygienic problems. In a special program using the questionnaire method was carried out several studies on the prevalence of alcohol and causes of alcoholism among specific groups: workers, factory youth, rural population, adolescents and other