Cal (synonym: defecation, excrement, faeces) - the contents of the colon that is allocated when urinating.
Cal healthy person is about 1/3 of food debris, 1/3 of the detachable bodies of digestion , and 1/3 of microbes, 95% of whom are dead. Research of excrements is an important part of the examination of the patient with diseases of the digestive system. It may be General or to pursue a specific purpose - the detection of occult blood, eggs, worms, etc., the First includes the macro-microscopic and chemical research. Microbiological examination of feces produced with suspected infectious intestinal disease. The faeces are collected in a dry, clean dishes and explore fresh, no more than 8-12 hours after the separation, when saving in the cold. Protozoa are looking for in a totally fresh, warm Calais.
For the microbiological examination of faeces should be collected in a sterile tube. In the study of feces in the presence of the blood of the patient must be in the previous 3 days to get food without meat and fish products.
To study state of digestion patient receives the table (№ 15) with the obligatory presence of meat. In some cases, for more precise study of digestion and metabolism resort to trial diet. Before picking up feces in 2-3 days the patient does not give drugs that change the nature or the color of feces.
Macroscopic research of excrements is referring to its quantity, texture, shape, color, odor, visible presence on the eye rests of food, pathological admixtures, parasites.
The number of faeces per day (usually 100-200 g) depends on moisture content, the nature of food, the level of its assimilation. When lesions of the pancreas, amyloidosis intestines, sprue, when digestion is disturbed, the weight of stool can reach up to 1 kg
The form of feces to a great extent depends on its consistency. Normal form his Kolbasina, the consistency is soft with constipation cal consists of a dense lumps, with spastic colitis he has the character of "sheep" Kala - small tight balls with the accelerated peristalsis cal liquid or pasty and unformed.
Color normal feces depends on presence in it stercobilin (see).
In violation of bile flow cal gets light grey or sand color. In profuse bleeding in the stomach or duodenum, the black feces (see Melena). The color of feces also change some medicines and pigments plant foods.
The smell of feces note, if it differs from the usual (for example, putrid smell when tumors or putrid dyspepsia).
For better detection of residues of food calories pound with a 10-fold amount of water and consider in a Petri dish on a black background. Fat in this emulsion floats in the form of cloudy residue on the surface. With an abundance of fat (steatorrhea) cal has Museveni consistency and lighter in color. From pathological constituent elements of Cala you can see mucus, blood, pus, appearing in inflammatory and ulcerous processes in the colon, concrements (biliary, pancreatic and intestinal) and parasites - round worms, the segments of tape.

microscopic examination of feces
Fig. 1. Muscle fibers (native preparation): 7-fiber cross striation; 2 - fiber longitudinal striation; 3-fiber, lost striated. Fig. 2. Undigested fiber (native preparation): 1 - fiber cereals; 2 - fiber vegetables; 3 - hairs of plants; 4 - vascular plants.
microscopy of feces
Fig. 3. Starch and jotovila flora (color Lugol solution): 1 - cells potatoes with grains of starch in the stage hamidullina; 2 - cells potatoes with grains of starch in the stage of eritrometsina; 3 - extracellular starch; 4 - jotovila flora. Fig. 4. Neutral fat (color Sudan III).
Fig. 5. Soap (native preparation): 1 - crystal soap; 2 - glybki Soaps. Fig. 6. Fatty acids (native preparation): 1 - the crystals fatty acids; 2 - neutral fat.
Kal under the microscope
Fig. 7. Mucus (native drug; small increase). Fig. 8. Cells potatoes, vessels and fibre plants (native drug; low magnification): 1 - cells potatoes; 2 - vascular plants; 3 - fiber.

Microscopic study (Fig. 1-8) is produced in four wet preparations: on a slide RUB the lump Cala the size of a match head with tap water (the first drug), logoiski solution (second drug), solution of Sudan III (third drug) and glycerol (fourth drug). The first drug differentiated most of loose feces: neparvarama fiber in the form of cells of different size and shape with thick skin or their groups, perevalka fiber with more thin skin, muscle fibers yellow cylindrical shape with longitudinal or cross-striated form or without acercandose (proparivatelya); erythrocytes, leukocytes, the cells of the intestinal epithelium, mucus in the form of light strands, with indistinct contours; fatty acids in the form of a thin needle crystals, pointed with both all, and soap in the form of small rhombic crystals and clumps. The drug with logoiski a solution prepare for the detection of starch grains, stainable this reagent in blue or violet color, and jocopilas flora. In the drug with Sudan III find bright orange-red drops of neutral fat. The drug with glycerin is used to find the eggs of helminths.
In norm in Calais contains neparvarama fiber, single fragments of muscle fibers without cross-banding, a single drop of oil and a little washed. The presence of starch speaks about insufficient absorption of carbohydrates, increasing the number of muscle fibres (creatore) and the emergence of cross-streaked - about bad digestion of proteins; in poor absorption of fat in the stool, you receive not only a lot of neutral fat, but with a lack of bile) a lot of fatty acids and Soaps. Of the parasite in the feces can be detected by simple amoeba, balantidia, lamblia, trichomona, as well as worms and their eggs (see Helminthological research methods).
Chemical research in clinical analysis is reduced to the simple quality samples. Using litmus paper to determine the reaction of environment. Normally, it is neutral or weakly alkaline. If a light color of feces produced a sample on stercobilin: a lump Cala the size of a hazelnut grind with several milliliters of 7% solution of mercuric chloride and leave for days. If there stercobilin occurs pink coloration.
The definition of occult blood is the most important study to identify ulcer or tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. To this end, apply benzidine test (see), guaiac test (see).