Potassium (Kalium, K) is a chemical element of main group I group of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Serial number 19, atomic weight 39,102. Potassium is the major intracellular ion, plays an important role in the regulation of body functions.
The main drug used in medical practice, is potassium chloride (Kalium chloratum, Kalii chloridum). The most common indication for its use is the lack of potassium. It can occur during treatment with cortisol, ACTH, digitalis, dihlotiazidom (hypothiazide); considerable loss of fluid from vomiting, diarrhea, excessive urination. Potassium chloride is prescribed for intoxication cardiac glycosides group digitalis, accompanied by cardiac arrhythmia, paroxysmal arrhythmia. Take potassium chloride inside 1 g 4-7 times a day in the form of 10% solution. Intravenous drug is only drip (rapid introduction could cause severe damage to the heart activity). Apply 0,4-0,5% solution KS1 in 5% glucose solution (500 ml administered for 1 hour).
Potassium chloride may cause nausea, diarrhea, overdose - feeling paresthesia, changes in the ECG. Its use is contraindicated in violation excretory functions of the kidneys. Do not assign product inside in the form of tablets because of the strong irritant action on the mucous membrane.
Potassium acetate (Kalium aceticum, Kalii acetas) is used as a diuretic for edema associated with heart disorder. Daily dose of 5 to 10 grams in a few receptions (in capsules or as a solution), 33-35% solution of the drug is called Liquor Kalii acetici (Kalium aceticum solutum).
Potassium perchlorate (Kalium perchloricum, Kalii perchloridum) inhibits the formation tireoidina, reducing the accumulation of iodine in the thyroid gland. Used in milder forms of hyperthyroidism inside (powders or tablets) 0.25 g 2-3 times a day before meals for 4-6 weeks, and then reduce the daily dose of up to 0.25 grams per day. The course of treatment is 2-4 months. The drug is contraindicated in pregnancy and ulcerous disease of stomach and duodenum. Cm. also Potassium permanganate.