Concrements (stones)

Concrements (synonym stones) - dense masses of different shapes and sizes that appear in hollow organs, body cavities, the Lumina glands and their excretory ducts. The greatest clinical significance stones, gall bladder, biliary tract (see Cholelithiasis) and urinary tract (see Renal disease); and the smaller stones glands, salivary, pancreas, prostate. Occasionally there are stones of the respiratory tract (reality, broncholytic), digestive tract diseases (calculus, mihalikova stone, integrality, coprolites), venous vessels (globality).
The origin and composition stones diverse. Stones in the renal pelvis and urinary tract may occur from uric acid salts (urates), oxalic and phosphate calcium (oxalates and phosphates); often they have a mixed chemical composition. The stones of the salivary glands, finality, broncholytic usually consist of phosphate and carbonate of calcium; gallbladder stones - out of cholesterol, bile pigments, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate.
To the common reasons that contribute to the formation of stones include metabolic disorders: the fat in cholelithiasis, mineral for gallstone. To local conditions include: stagnation secret, inflammation, violation of secretory and sucking the activities of the authority. On an organic basis dead cells colonies of microbes salts are deposited from a solution of urine, bile secretion glands. Stones can consist only of compacted dehydrated organic substrate. Such, for example, the stones of bile pigments, protein stones renal pelvis.
Most of the stones is incidental finding at autopsy, but often they make themselves felt in life, causing pain and causing complications.
The most dangerous stones thick, bumpy's surface, which when travelling cause sharp pain and contribute to the development of bedsores, ulcers, bleeding, pramodini hollow organs or walls ductless. Closing the excretory duct stones cause stagnation of the secret that can lead to jaundice (see) when the obstruction of the common bile and liver ducts, hydronephrosis (see) - if the obstruction of the ureter, as well as to the formation of cysts in the pancreas.
Irritation stones underlying tissues and the penetration of infectious flora contribute to the development of inflammation (see Pyelonephritis, Cholecystitis). In some cases, spontaneous selection of stones, for example from the bile ducts in the intestinal lumen, of the urinary tract with urine, etc.,
Treatment: in the presence of severe clinical symptoms shown surgical removal of stones, see Cholelithiasis, treatment, kidney-stone disease, treatment.