A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye. There are cataracts congenital and acquired. Congenital cataracts are found in children, there are, as a rule, bilateral and usually do not progress. The reduction depends on the size and intensity of the haze. The reasons for the development acquired cataract different: trauma, endocrine diseases, disturbance of metabolism, some occupational hazards and the other Reason for the development of the most common cataract unclear.
At occurrence of cataract patients usually complain about deteriorating eyesight. Beginning of senile cataract is characterized by a small decrease in vision and presence in the lens (it is detected during inspection Ophthalmoscope) strahovanii haze, going from the periphery to the center (Fig. 5); in immature cataract lower view more significantly, which is associated with increased cloudiness in the lens (Fig. 6); Mature cataract is characterized by sharp reduction of view (up light sensitivity) and clouding of the whole substance of the lens, which becomes grayish-white (Fig. 7). The maturation of senile cataracts usually 1-3 years and more.

Fig. 1. Front polar cataract. Fig. 2. Zonal cataract. Fig. 3. Zonal cataract in transmitted light. Fig. 4. Primary senile cataract. Fig. 5. Primary senile cataract in transmitted light. Fig. 6. Immature senile cataract. Fig. 7. Mature senile cataract. Fig. 8. Mirganiev cataract. Fig. 9. Secondary cataract.

With rapidly progressive dimness and swelling of the lens often comes a sharp increase in intraocular pressure, accompanied by severe pain in the eye and other signs resembling acute attack of glaucoma (see); in these cases, the required emergency surgery.
Traumatic cataract develops after damage to the lens. Lenticular substance quickly becomes cloudy and gradually absorbed. Young people, in the lens which there is no dense cores, it can disappear completely. Vision significantly reduced.
Radiation cataracts occur from eye exposure to ionizing radiation. Clinical manifestation of radiation cataract is preceded by a latent period of several months to several years.
Suspected cataracts may occur on the basis of complaints on the reduction of vision. The patient should be referred for examination to the doctor-ophthalmologist.
Forecast for cataract favorable, after surgery, cataract removal vision is restored. To slow the progression of cataract appoint drops (2 drops 2 times a day), containing 2-3% a solution of potassium iodide, vitamins (Riboflavin, ascorbic acid), vizin.
Prevention of traumatic and radiation cataract is to protect the eyes from damage.

Phacoemulsification is the newest method of cataract extraction

Article about effective method of treatment of cataract phacoemulsification.

A cataract is a clouding of the lens and the resulting deterioration of vision up to its complete loss is a common disease. In the last century people suffering from cataracts, was doomed to replace the lens heavy glasses with thick lenses that had to carry the rest of his life.
But ophthalmology has been steadily growing, and traumatic surgery wearing subsequently inconvenient points forever gone. Modern ophthalmologists have the most modern methods of surgical treatment of cataract, which allow operation under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, which means that a patient after surgery can go home.
One of the least traumatic eye methods of cataract removal is phacoemulsification. The surgeon makes a tiny incision, not exceeding 2 to 3 mm afflicted with cataracts cloudy lens without breaking the capsule is crushed with the help of ultrasound, then the particles of the lens sucked away from the eye. After removing the lens is inserted into the incision folded artificial crystalline lens, which provides a flexible lens, which unfolds itself in the cavity of the eye and allows you to fully restore vision. Artificial lens is chosen taking into account individual peculiarities of a patient's eye.
After the operation there is no need for stitches, because tiny incision is pulled himself. The rehabilitation period is only a few days. After this operation vision is restored fully, the person may not restrict the visual load.
Surgery to remove the lens, phacoemulsification almost not accompanied by complications, has very little medical contraindications and lasts only a few minutes. This operation returned the opportunity to see the world for thousands of patients.

Step 1 - Natural cataractous lens pierced and is sucked out.
Step 2 - Flexible artificial lens carefully implanted.
Step 3 - Artificial lens correctly located, and the incision is sealed without seams.

Procedure cataract removal is carried out in a specialized operating, under sterile conditions and lasts 20 minutes. Once the pupils have become expanded due eye drops, the operation is performed under local anesthesia. A small incision (about 3 mm in length is performed on the surface of the cornea, through which natural lens (as previously reduced by ultrasound) is extracted, and it is replaced by a flexible artificial intraocular lens.
The patient does not require hospitalization after this intervention, and able to return home soon after this, in the company of friends or relatives. The operated eye bandaged and postoperative treatment of eye drops are needed in the weeks after phacoemulsification.
In most cases, a noticeable improvement in visual acuity is happening the next day, but to a final result requires a few weeks. The patient may be able to drive and get back to work a few days after the operation.
It should be borne in mind that if the cataract of both eyes, the patient's vision is very unbalanced between two separate procedures.
Phacoemulsification can be used in combination with other corrective methods, e.g. LASIK or PRK for more accurate astigmatism correction (barrel of view).