Cybernetics

Cybernetics is the science about the General laws of control machines and living organisms. The emergence of Cybernetics due primarily to practical needs - the need to create complex automatic control systems. Unlike other Sciences, is also associated with the establishment of these systems, Cybernetics not engaged in the research and development of individual and private technical issues, and learns something in common, which is characteristic of all management processes, regardless of their physical nature. The main task of Cybernetics is to create a unified theory of control processes.
One of the most important concepts of Cybernetics is the concept of management objectives. Management is always goal-oriented process. Control system exists, or is created to achieve a certain goal.
The management process can only happen in a properly organized system in which you can select the control and managed (Executive) authorities. Between individual organs of the control system is the exchange of information. Any control system somehow interacts with the external environment, which is the source of various perturbations, i.e., information that is not appropriate for the purpose of functioning. The perception of these disturbances and the appropriate response is typical of any management system. In this case you can also follow the appropriate information flows from sensitive organs (sensor) to the Manager and then to the Executive. In turn signals the information from the Executive bodies can be served on sensitive or governing bodies - feedback signals, providing, for example, information about the state Executive body. Thus, in any management system is constantly necessary exchange of information. The concept of information is one of the main in Cybernetics, which studies the processes of management with the information point of view, paying much less attention to the energy and construction characteristics of real systems management. So often Cybernetics defined as the science about ways of perception, transmission, storage, processing and use of information in machines and living organisms.
The scope of Cybernetics is the study of the structure and various physical principles of operation of control systems. The main attention is paid to the abilities of various structures to perceive and process information. In their methods Cybernetics is the science that extensively uses the mathematical apparatus, in particular for formal description of management systems and their bodies - build their mathematical models. The study of mathematical models and applying mathematical methods allow to create optimal from the point of view of the selected criteria of the control system, i.e. the system that provides the closest achieving the set objectives.
Considerable attention in Cybernetics is paid to the so-called self-tuning, or adaptive systems that can pass from an arbitrary initial conditions in a sustainable, appropriate to the nature of the external perturbation, which is in General the most suitable for these conditions.
The presence of General control theory provides the possibility of successful practical use of many ideas of Cybernetics. Depending on the area of interest and research Cybernetics divided into a number of sections. So, for example, allocate technical Cybernetics is the science about the management of technical systems, biological Cybernetics is the science of control in living organisms, etc.,
Certain aspects of Cybernetics allocate in the area of practical interest. Thus, medical Cybernetics has as its main goal to use the ideas, concepts and achievements of the General theory of control in the field of medicine.
Work in the field of medical Cybernetics is directed on creation of devices and control systems, providing the emergence of new effective methods and ways of treatment. Similar systems are already successfully applied in practice apparatus "artificial kidney", "artificial heart", and etc. Starts to be implemented in practice machine diagnostics: electronic computing machine for a given program analyzes the submitted data on the condition of the patient and gives his diagnosis. Works on automation of management of medical institutions and their complexes, and so on, But the introduction of the ideas of Cybernetics in medicine today is in the initial stage.