• Microflora and methods of research of bowels
  • Pathology
  • Operations on the intestines
  • The intestine is part of the digestive tract from the pylorus of the stomach to the anus (Fig. 1). The main sections of the intestine, small intestine and large intestine. The small intestine has a length of 6-7 m; it distinguishes between short duodenum (see), skinny colon and ileum. The colon has a length of 1-2 m and is divided into blind intestine, colon (ascending, transverse and descending) and the sigmoid colon, followed by the rectum (see).

    the organs of the abdominal cavity
    the structure of the wall of the small intestine
    Fig. 1.(left) the Location of the abdominal cavity: 1 - stomach; 2 - the descending colon, 3 - sigmoid; 4 - rectum; 5 - the ileum; 6 - cecum; 7 - transverse colon, 8 - ascending colon, 9 - duodenum; 10 - gallbladder; 11 - liver.

    Fig. 2. The structure of the wall of the small intestine: 1 - the mesentery; 2 - the serous membrane; 3 - mucosa with submucosal layer; 4 - muscular layer.

    Skinny and ileum approximately equal length, have the form of flat cylindrical pipe. They are attached to the posterior abdominal wall through the mesentery, in which are feeding their vessels and nerves. Vessels (branches of the superior mesenteric artery), approaching intestine, form anastomoses in the form of arcs ("arcades"), which is parallel to the intestine. Serous cover the mesentery - visceral peritoneum (see) - moves to the intestine, covering it from all sides. The considerable length of the mesentery provides greater mobility and free excretion in the operating wound loops jejunum and ileum guts, but finite Department of the latter, where the mesentery short. The ileum flows into the blind. The wall of the small intestine consists of several layers (Fig. 2). The mucous membrane is it forms numerous circular folds. At the confluence of the ileum in the blind is formed between them iliac-kapaciteta (Bauhinia) flap.
    The large intestine consists of the same layers as thin wall, but its longitudinal muscle fibers are collected in bunches with three bands along the intestine. In between intestinal wall forms a protrusion, separated by interceptions - moon folds. The mesentery well pronounced in the transverse colon, sigmoid colon, as in other departments of the colon does not, so the back wall of the ascending and descending colon deprived serous cover and lies in the retroperitoneal fat. The mobility of these sections of the intestine is very limited. Cecum below the mouth of the iliac forms a wide blind bag (hence the name)from which departs vermiform process (Appendix), which has its own mesentery. The size of the process, its shape and location vary widely. The kinks, narrowing of the process leading to stagnation in it feces, can contribute to the development of appendicitis (see). Sometimes vermiform process is subjected under blind intestine and is located entirely retroperitoneal, making it difficult to remove. Sigmoid colon forms sometimes a long loop, which, being very mobile, down the pelvis or lying transversely - from left to right, with regard to the cecum, and even covers it; sometimes she folded twice ("shotgun"). In this regard, the inversion of the colon most often occurs in the area of the sigmoid colon.
    Age-related changes of the intestine. The infant small intestine is very short, with a narrow clearance. As the child grows, it is extended, its clearance is increased (stops the growth of the intestine to 21 years). Cecum in children lies high up under the liver (which complicates the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children), with age it falls in the right iliac fossa.
    Physiology bowel - see Digestion.