Pathology. Of malformations most important congenital stenoses of the intestines that led to urgent surgery in the newborn. When atresia (total absence) just bowel or more small intestine child unsustainable. Other anomalies - diverticula (see Meckel diverticulum), megacolon (see), the total mesentery the iliac and blind gut, the excessive length of other departments of the mesentery - are of importance mainly as a cause, predisposing to the development of intestinal obstruction (ileus). The latter is most often and forces for operations in these anomalies.
Inflammatory processes of the intestine - see Colitis, Proctitis, Enteritis.
Very hard proceeds cellulitis ulcer (almost always the small intestine), a rare disease, the symptoms are similar to severe acute appendicitis (see); the delay in operation quickly causes General peritonitis (see).
Neuroses intestines are a manifestation of the General neurosis (see) with infringement of functions of the intestine without organic amendments in it.
Clinic: suddenly arising diarrhea with cramping pains in the abdomen, bloating, rumbling. Abdomen is soft. Sometimes the neuroses of the intestines occur in the form of constipation (reflex spasm anal sphincter).
Treatment: sedation, restorative therapy, symptomatic drugs (papaverine, belladonna, and others).
The bowel tumor can be benign (lipoma, leiomyoma, hemangioma, polyps and polypous adenoma) and malignant (cancer, sarcoma). Benign tumors are rare, occurring for a long time without symptoms, then pain, constipation, intestinal occlusion.
Cancer of the small intestine is rare. Accompanied by General symptoms of weight loss, weakness, anemia, pain in the corresponding section of the intestines, the onset of obstruction. Diagnosis is difficult, specified radiographically. Treatment - radical surgery.
Colon cancer is most common in the elderly; more often localized in the sigmoid, is more rare in the caecum. Characterized by a dull pain in the abdomen, especially before defecation, sometimes diarrhea with pus, blood, periodic obstruction; weight loss, weakness develop slowly. Diagnosis is confirmed by x-ray examination using the barium enema. Treatment - operative.
Sarcoma of the intestines occur much more rarely. Localization and symptoms are the same as in cancer, so vivo diagnosis sarcoma is extremely difficult. Principles of surgical treatment are the same as in cancer, the prognosis is much heavier.
Parasites of the intestine. In the intestines can parasitize the adult worms or helminths, located in one of the stages of the biological cycle. Depending on the type of worms develops one or the other symptoms (see Helminthiasis). Bowel disease may be caused by protozoa and Giardia.
Balantidia - lesions of large intestine up to the formation of ulcers caused by balantidiasis (see Balantidia). Characterized by diarrhea, sometimes with blood and mucus, chair up to 20-30 times a day, pain and soreness in the course of the colon, increased body temperature, progressive weight loss.
The presence of Giardia in the gut in some cases are asymptomatic, in others it leads to dyspeptic phenomena, diarrhea until 4-7 times a day, which can last for years (see Giardiasis). The disease is accompanied by weight loss, General asthenia. Severe forms of giardiasis bowel similar non-specific ulcerative colitis (see).
Treatment: with balantidioza most effective emetine in combination with laminarnom (the treatment is carried out under the strict supervision of a doctor). Giardiasis - Akrikhin (several cycles), aminohinol. Prevention: the observance of rules of personal hygiene, security of food and water sources from pollution.
Amoebic dysentery - see Amebiasis.
Syphilis bowel is rare, diagnosed difficult. Manifested in the form of solid shangraw, acute and chronic enteritis, gumoshnik ulcers. The diagnosis is confirmed by the history, the presence of other manifestations of syphilis and positive results gray-reactions. Treatment - specific and symptomatic.
Tuberculosis bowel develops secondarily in pulmonary tuberculosis. The process usually localized in ileo-secalinum intestine, at first, may be accepted for chronic appendicitis and is recognized by a careful examination of the patient. In ulcerative form, not violating the cross cancer, shown on TB treatment in a specialized medical institution. When productive form of tuberculosis bowel formed granuloma in the form of a massive tumor infiltration, cross cancer is broken. In these cases, with the failure of the conservative anti-TB treatment is shown operation.
Damage to the bowel - see Belly.
Fistulas bowel - see Intestinal fistula.
The omission of gut - see Splashnotes.