Acid-base balance

Acid-base balance (acid-base state) in the body - the constancy of the hydrogen ion exponent (pH) in the intercellular and intracellular environment. Acid-base balance due to the action buffer systems of blood and tissue, respiratory function (light) and renal (kidney) systems, as well as the release into the cavity of the stomach and intestines secrets glands of digestive tract. Acid-base balance plays an important role in maintaining the constancy of the environment in the body and in the regulation of enzyme chemical reactions. Violation of acid-alkaline equilibrium leads to disorders, i.e. the prevalence in blood and tissues of the anions of acid, or alkalosis, i.e. the accumulation of cations of alkali. Acidosis occurs in starvation, oxygen deficiency, toxemia of pregnancy, nephrite, diabetes mellitus and others; alkalosis - by altitude sickness, shortness of breath, etc. Cm. also, Buffer solutions, pH.