Brush

  • Pathology brush
  • The hand consists of the wrist, palm and fingers. Skeleton wrist formed eight bones arranged in two rows. Top row, counting from the radial bone, are the scaphoid, lunate, trihedral and pea-shaped bone; the second - large and small trapezoidal bones, capitate and hooked. Metacarpus is formed five metacarpal bones. Phalanxes form bone base of the fingers; 1 finger has two limbs, and the remaining three. The joints of the hand - see Fig. 1. The joints of the wrist, palm and fingers is connected powerful ligamentous apparatus.

    veins and nerves of the left hand
    Fig. 1. The superficial veins and nerves in the rear of the left hand: 1 - nn. digitales dorsales; 2-vv. intercapitulares; 3 - v. cephalica; 4 - ramus superficialis
    n. radialis; 5 - v. basilica; 6 - ramus dorsalis n. ulnaris; 7 - arcus venosi digitales.
    Fig. 2. Vessels and nerves in the rear of the left hand: 1 - nn. digitales dorsales; 2 - AA. digitales dorsales; a - a. radialis; 4 - aa. metacarpeae dorsales; 5 - Ty m. extensoris pollicis longi; 6 - Ty m. extensoris pollicis brevis; 7 - ramus carpeus dorsalis a. radialis; 8-ramus superficialis n. radialis; 9 - tendo m. extensoris carpi radialis longi, 10-Ty m. extensoris carpi radialis brevis; 11 - a u extensorum; 12 - tendines m. extensoris digitorum; is - Ty m. extensoris indicis; 14 - Ty m. extensoris carpi ulnaris; 15 - ramus dorsalis n. ulnaris.
    vessels and nerves of the left hand
    Fig. 3. Surface vessels and nerves of the left hand: 1 - a. digitalis propria; 2 - a. digitalis communis; 3 - n. digitalis palmaris proprius; 4 - aponeurosis palmaris; 5 - m. palmaris brevis, 6 - ramus eutaneus palmaris n. ulnaris; 7 - a. ulnaris; s - ramus cutaneus palmaris n. mediani; 9-ramus n. cutanei antebrachii lat.
    Figure.4. Vessels and nerves of the left hand: 1 - a. digitalis propria; 2 - a. digitalis communis; 3 - n. digitalis palmaris proprius n. ulnaris; 4 - arcus palmaris superficialis; 5-n. digitalis palmaris communis n. ulnaris; 6-m. abductor digiti minimi; 7-m. flexor digiti minimi brevis; 8-ramus volaris profundus a. ulnaris; 9 - ramus volaris profundus n. ulnaris; 10-ramus palmaris manus n. ulnaris; 11-a. ulnaris; 12-vv. ulnares; 13 - n. medianus; 14-a. radialis; 18 - ramus cutaneus palmaris n. mediani; 16 - ramus palmaris superficialis a. radialis; 17-u flexorum; is - m. abductor pollicis brevis; 19-m. flexor pollicis brevis; 20 - n. digitalis palmaris communis n. mediani; 21-m. adductor pollicis; 22 - m. lumbricalis I; 23 - tendo m. flexoris digitorum superficialis; 24 - vagina tendinis.
    nerves artery and vein of the left hand
    Fig. 5. Deep arteries and nerves left hand: 1-a. digitalis palmaris propria; 2-n. digitalis palmaris proprius; 3 - a. digitalis palmaris communis; 4-tendines flexorum; 5 - m. lumbricalis; 6-m. interosseus palmaris; 7-a. metacarpea palmaris; 8-m. opponens digiti minimi; 9 - m. abductor digiti minimi; 10-ramus palmaris profundus a. ulnaris; 11-ramus profundus n. ulnaris; 12-ramus superficialis n. ulnaris; 13 - n. ulnaris (ramus palmaris); 14-a. ulnaris; 15 - m. flexor carpi ulnaris; 16 - rete carpi palmare; 17 - m. pronator quadratus; 18-a. radialis; 19 - Ty m. flexoris carpi radialis; 20-ramus palmaris superficialis a. radialis; 21-u flexorum; 22 - m. abductor pollicis brevis; 23 - m. opponens pollicis; 24 - m. flexor pollicis brevis; 25 - m. adductor pollicis; 26 - arcus palmaris profundus; 27 - a. princeps pollicis; 28 - m. interosseus dorsalis I.
    Fig. 6. Nerves, arteries and veins of the left hand (radiation surface): 1-a. digitalis palmaris propria; 2-n. digitalis palmaris proprius; 3 - m. adductor pollicis; 4 - nn. digitales dorsales; 5 - Ty m. extensoris pollicis brevis; 6 - Ty m. extensoris pollicis longi; 7 - a. radialis; 8 - ramus super-licialis n. radialis; 9 - v. cephalica; 10-u-extensorum; 11 - tendo m. extensoris carpi radialis longi; 12-ramus carpeus dorsalis a. radialis; 13 - a. radialis; 14 - rete venosum dorsale; 15 - m. interosseus dorsalis I; 16 - a. metacarpea dorsalis I.
    the joints of the hand
    Fig. 1. The joints of the hand: 1 - interphalangeal; 2 - metacarpophalangeal; 3 - carpometacarpal (thumb); 4 - megaparty; 5 - wrist; in - styloid process elbow bones; 7 - carpometacarpal (in the mountain, third, fourth and fifth metacarpal bones); 8 - magpantay.

    the muscles of the Palmar surface of the brush
    Fig. 2. The muscles of the Palmar surface of the brush: 1 - the muscle that causes the big finger; 2 - short flexor thumb; 3 - short muscle leading thumb; 4 - long Palmar muscle; 5 - short flexor small finger; muscle, diverting a small finger (the finger); 7 - worm-like muscle.

    the muscles of the back surface of a brush
    Fig. 3. The muscles of the back surface of the brush: 1 - dorsal interosseous muscle; 2 - tendon long extensor of the thumb; 3 - ligament that supports the tendons extensor; 4 - tendon long extensor.


    Movement of the hand and fingers are due to muscle contraction, of which in the brush are interosseous, vermiform, the muscles of the exaltation of the thumb - tenure and muscles of the exaltation of the small finger - hipotekara (Fig. 2 and 3). All other muscles, resulting in the movement of the hand and fingers, are located on the forearm. Muscles, bending the wrist and fingers, they are innervated by the elbow and median nerves. Muscle erector hand and fingers - radial nerve. The blood supply brush occurs through the ulnar and radial artery, whose branches on the Palmar side anastomose with each other, forming surface and deep arc.
    Leather palm surface of the hand and fingers thicker skin back surface and less mobile. In the heart of the palm is dense Palmar aponeurosis, between fibrous strands is located fatty tissue. Skin brush has a large number of sweat glands, sensitive nerve endings. In the papillary layer of the dermis mainly at your fingertips, there are tactile bullock Meissner, which subtle sense of touch. On the back side of the distal end of the phalanges is a nail.