Cellular changes in allergic reactions

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Immunological reactions that occur in response to the introduction of allergens that cause the body or state immunity, or to the state of hypersensitivity or in these two States simultaneously. This is consistent with the involvement of various groups of cells, each of which has a specific function.
Cellular changes can be depending on a way of introduction of the allergen, its chemical structure, quantity and physical properties.
If you enter an antigen in the foot of the animal in the form of suspension or emulsion, cell response is observed mainly in the field of regional lymph nodes.
If the antigen be administered intravenously or intraperitoneally in large quantities, it is rapidly absorbed. In this case, cell response is observed in all the lymph nodes, as well as in the liver, spleen, brain, tonsils, lymphoid follicles of the digestive tract.
Currently still poorly studied the role of each group of cells involved in immune reactions, and their relationship.
There are three groups of cells involved in immune reactions: cell reticuloendothelial, lymphoid basophils and plasma cells (for a detailed description of these cells is beyond the scope of our work).
Electron microscopy and cytochemical study allow a better understanding of the finest cellular changes.
Try to imagine with a certain degree of probability the course of immune reactions from the moment of introduction into the organism of the antigen to the emergence of specific antibodies, the role of which is to neutralize the antigens. When ingested, the antigen lymph blood ways "delivered" to the bodies that have absorbent his cell. To absorb, absorb antigen - the main role of macrophages, cells gistiotitarnaya series. These cells are numerous in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and sinuses lymph nodes. They are called the reticuloendothelial. Inside these cells occur most important biological processes, one of which is "recognition" quality antigen inside the macrophage. This process is very important in the chain of processes immunological reaction. In General for cell reticuloendothelial this is some new feature, as the main is the constant cleansing liquid environments of an organism from various alien particles (alive and dead) and their decay products. These cells also cleanse the body of his own cells, which can no longer perform his functions due to old age or damage.
The presence of endothelial cells in various tissues of the body; their concentration in "strategically important for the body points (at the confluence of the lymphatic and blood vessels), intensive Pinot - and phagocytic activity correspond to their member functions "recognition" stranger in the body. This concept acknowledges a number of observations. If the animal to enter labeled antigen parenteral, you can see that the latter is subject Pinot - or phagocytosis by macrophages (according to its physical properties). Inside the macrophage antigen exposed to influence of enzymes. These processes are well understood against bacteria and certain other antigenic substances. Assume that the same effect and are soluble antigenic substance. This process results in further formation of antibodies. It can be assumed that the specific antigens for a long time remain inside macrophages.