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C. G. Baranov et al. (1983) was the conception, according to which the beginning of menopause in women is directly related to one of the stages age realignment taking place in the higher parts of the Central nervous system, in the system of the hypothalamus - pituitary - ovaries uterus.
According to E. M. Valeevoj (1980), menopause women covers the period of time between 45 and 60 years. This is the interval between the end of the reproductive period and permanent cessation of ovarian function. This opinion is shared by J. Pres-sel (1982). Menopause is broken cyclic secretion releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
Thus, climacteric period is considered as age overhaul of the centers of the hypothalamus, which regulates the secretion of the gonadotropic hormones, with subsequent breach of the cyclic products releasing hormone, gonadotropin and ovarian hormones, termination of ovulation and reproductive function.
In menopause due to age-related changes of the reproductive system violated the relationship between its Central and peripheral units, as well as feedback from the periphery to the center.
Age perestroika hypothalamic centers found in women long before the change of menstrual function. Studies have shown Century, Baranova (1961), V. M. of Dillman (1983) and others, increased the age of excitability of the hypothalamus is already apparent from 35-40 years and is accompanied by changes in carbohydrate, fat, protein metabolism, the increase in body mass index, changes in blood pressure and function of the cardiovascular system, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, etc. In experimental studies obtained evidence of the primacy of age-related changes in the hypothalamus. So, peresedov the pituitary gland and the ovaries from old rats young conversely, the authors found that the aging process begins in the hypothalamic region, then spreads to the pituitary gland and the ovaries. It is also shown that the cessation of menstruation in women is due to the aging of hypothalamic regulating centers trophism of the ovaries and their sensitivity to gonadotropins. These data suggest that menopause - involutionary process, developing primarily in the higher hypothalamic centers.
Certain clusters of neurons in the hypothalamus secrete the hormone-releasing hormones that affect various organs and tissues. In its activities, the hypothalamus is not Autonomous. C. M. Gillman (1983) rightly indicates that the hypothalamus could not play the role of integrating system, if he had not received corrective signals from other parts of the Central nervous system and in turn would impact on them.
Because the hypothalamus has close functional liaison with other entities of the brain, especially the limbic structures and reticular formation, which is the neural substrate of emotional and motivational behaviour, age-related changes of their functional state are observed in women emotional and mental disorders, a decline of memory and attention, deterioration of health, irritability, emotional instability. In addition, the hypothalamus part of the brain plays a leading role in the regulation of metabolism and other functions in aging.
During menopause are also important functional changes in the anterior pituitary, whose activities are closely related to hypothalamic the part of the brain. Age-related changes in the pituitary gland characterized by the violation of cyclic secretion of the gonadotropic hormones. Increases secretion of FSH, reduced production of LH and LTG. These changes start in pre-menopausal women, and continue for a long time after menopause and termination of hormonal function of the ovaries.