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The end of the reproductive period and the transition to the climacteric period of life is characterized, as already indicated, a violation of the natural cyclic processes of the reproductive system, as well as the organs and systems related to its function. Accordingly, changes in hormonal homeostasis, which in turn leads to impaired functioning of the body, characteristic for the period of the age of involution - menopausal period. The ageing of the reproductive system is a gradual shutdown of the reproductive cycle. Clinically, these changes are manifested in the age rhythm menstruation and their gradual termination.
Thanks to social progress has increased the life expectancy of people. This led to the fact that the female body for more than 20-25 years lives in terms of age-related changes of homeostasis, in particular hormonal homeostasis, due to the termination of cyclic processes of the reproductive system. In this regard, as already indicated, significantly increases the risk of diseases such as diabetes older, cardiovascular disease, obesity, benign and malignant tumors and others In the development of these diseases increases the risk of pathological course of climacteric period.
Studies conducted in recent decades, has allowed a deeper to reveal the complex mechanisms of development and fading of the reproductive system. In this regard, the study of the aging process and the reproductive system in menopause will more effectively implement measures for the prevention of pathological menopause and diseases, the most frequently occurring in the climacteric period.
Under the influence of various diseases and adverse effects which may occur at any age, the development of menopause can become pathological. In this regard, as already indicated, each physician must not only be aware of the nature of age-related changes in the body and sexual system, but also to know the signs of pathological menopause and be able to differentiate them from changes arising from age-related involution in the body and reproductive system, but also know features of the course of menopause, complicated various diseases.
Age-related health problems and reproductive system genetically programmed, that is why all women both in physiological and pathological development of menopause.
Modern representations about menopause, its physiological and pathological features began to form in the 50-ies of the current century. Thanks to advances in neurophysiology, neuromorphology and neuroendocrinology managed to clarify the special role of the so-called non-specific systems brain in the integrative activity, one manifestation of which is the endocrine-metabolic regulation, carried out by various ring systems [vine A. M. and others, 1981; Grashchenkov N. I., 1964; Szentagothai Ya and others, 1965]. The functions of the Central nervous and endocrine systems - about the changes in the metabolism in tissues under the action of neurohumoral factors, the implementation in practice of clinical-physiological studies of the finest methods to study the functional state of not only separate organs and systems, but also intimate adaptive mechanisms contributed to solving mechanisms underlying the transition to menopause period in women, and expansion of ideas about the violations in separate units, which play a role in the development of the processes of aging and menopause.