The clinical course of thermal burns

The severity of the clinical picture and the prognosis for thermal injury depend not only on the depth of tissue damage, but equally from the burn area. Long-term clinical experience shows that burns, even surface, and the deeper, become life threatening if they cover more than 25% of the body surface. Therefore, to determine the severity of the animal is very important to know the area and the depth of the burn.

Classification burns

Currently in veterinary practice, the most widespread classification, distinguishing 4 the degree burns: I - erythema - slight swelling of the skin; II - necrosis of the surface layers of the skin, diffuse swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (sometimes blistering); III - skin necrosis and lower fabrics; IV - charring of tissue (body).
This classification reflects only postmortem tissue changes in the degree of their destruction in depth and completely ignores the important factors, such as size of the lesions. Therefore, in our practice we use a combined method of marking burn injury (proposed Yu Yu Dzhanelidze in 1938, at the XXIV all-Union Congress of surgeons) subject area and the extent of involvement in a fraction: the numerator is indicated the size of the burn a percentage of total body surface or in square centimeters, and the denominator of the depth of the burn.
In different parts of burnt surface depth of tissue damage may be different. In this case, the denominator indicates some degree burn.
In medical practice became widespread classification burns recommended at the XXVII-th all-Union Congress of surgeons 1960, which divides them according to the depth of the defeat in 4 stages: I-e retama skin with a slightly pronounced edema; II-bubbles that contain liquid; III "A" partial necrosis of the skin, where possible islet epithelization; III B-total necrosis of the skin throughout the entire thickness; IV - skin necrosis and globule-containing tissues of the limbs from moving into gangrene.diagram classification burns
Fig. 1. Classification scheme burns. I, II, III, IV degree burns: 1-epidermal layer; 1 - dermis; 3 - subcutaneous fat; 4 - fascia and smash of deep tissue and sebaceous glands; 6 - sweat glands; in - hair bag; d is fat tissue; d - papillary layer of derma; e - reticular layer of derma; W - granular layer of the epidermis; C - the Horny layer of the epidermis.
There are other, less common, classification burns. So, Boyer (Woah, 1814) proposed to divide them into 3 degrees. Kreibich proposed to distinguish between 5 degrees of burns: I and II coincide with generally accepted classification, III-necrosis of the tops of the papillary layer of the skin, IV-necrosis just papillary layer, V - necrosis with charring tissues.
The surface of minor burns can be measured with great precision on a method of N. N. Postnikova, which is this: take washed the x-ray film (you can use the clear plastic film), sterilize her, carefully obmaua alcohol and impose on the burnt surface. A stick dipped in a solution of methylene blue, Potanina or tincture of iodine put the contours of the burn. Then the film is placed on a grid with divisions on a square centimeters or on graph paper and calculate the area circled on the blue surface of the film. With extensive lesions of the burned surface is measured with a ruler or measuring tape. Defining the area of damage and knowing the total area of the skin of the animal, you can calculate the percentage of burnt surface to the total body surface. The total surface of the skin can be defined, knowing the weight of the animal.