Enemas

  • Using enemas in childhood
  • Enema - procedure of introduction in a direct gut different liquids with therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.


    Fig.1. Pear-shaped balloons (left), irrigator set (on the right).

    Fig. 2. Tips: 1 - rubber; 2 - rubber; 3 - glass.

    Fig. 3. Setting cleansing enema.

    For enemas (Fig. 1) are used for: pear-shaped rubber tank, sometimes hard tip, a large crater with a rubber tube, clips and tip, irrigator set by capacity 1 to 1.5 l (if the glass, it is better graduated). Rubber tube length 1.5 m wear one end to the Cup on the other end of the tip. If no special cranes, pipe before tip you can wear clip Mora or Kocher. Tips are rubber, glass and rubber (Fig. 2). To treatment enemas include cleaning (spray-tion), laxative, medicinal and nutritional.
    Contraindications to the formulation of any enemas: acute inflammatory and ulcerous processes in the rectum, acute appendicitis, peritonitis, intestinal bleeding, bleeding hemorrhoids, disintegrating colon cancer, fissures, loss of bowel, sharp abdominal pain during the procedure.
    Enemas are used for constipation, different poisonings (food and other), before surgery and x-ray examination of abdominal cavity and small pelvis, lumbar spine and other, as well before use of medicinal and nutritional enemas. For cleansing enema take 1-2 liters of warm water (temperature of 25 to 35 degrees). In spastic constipation better to do enemas hot (temperature 37-42 degrees). In atonic constipation apply cold water (temperature 20-12 degrees) or put hypertensive enema of 2-3% solution of sodium chloride. To enhance the effects of enemas, you can add 1 table. L. grated child or soap or 2 - 3 tablespoon of glycerin or vegetable oil. Good effect enema of the decoction of dried chamomile (1 table spoon on 1 glass of water).
    Pour in a Cup liquid rubber tube necessarily fill with fluid (to the receiver had no air) and close the faucet or impose clip. The patient lies down on his left side, under it enclose the oilcloth, the end of which is lowered into the pelvis (or bucket) in case the patient will not be able to hold water (Fig. 3). If enema should be placed in a supine, under the patient enclose the vessel. Vaselined tip rotational movement imposed on 10-12 cm in the rectum. After that open the crane (or remove the clip) and a mug gradually raised to a height of 1 M. After removing the tip of the patient must hold water for 5 - 10 minutes to wash myself all the departments of the colon.
    To purifying enemas include mechanized enema, is designed for multipurpose irrigation of the large intestine. Instead circles take the big funnel capacity 500-1000 ml and fill it with water. In a rubber tube is inserted long rubber tip (20 to 30 cm), which is deeply (10-15 cm) is injected into the rectum. When raising up funnel water penetrates into the intestine; once it reaches the bottom of the crater, crater quickly lowered down, and the liquid from the intestine with admixture of stool and gas enters the vortex, where it is poured. Such washing of produce 10 times or more (up to clean water).
    To the laxative enema include oil, hypertension and glycerin. Oil enema do with persistent constipation. Take 50-200 ml of sunflower, flax, hemp or olive oil, preheated to a temperature of 37-38 degrees and enter pear-shaped cylinder rectum usually at night. The effect occurs in 10 - 12 hours.
    Hypertensive enemas are used in atonic constipation, swelling (heart and kidney), hypertensive disease, increasing intracranial pressure. Take 50 to 100 ml of 10% solution of sodium chloride or 20-30% solution of magnesium sulfate in the form of hot and enter pear-shaped container. Action enema occurs in 20-30 minutes Glycerin enema currently appointed and rarely done. Enter in a direct gut 5-10 ml of pure glycerin pear-shaped cylinder or syringethat wear rubber catheter. Due to irritation of the mucous membrane increases peristalsis, causing a bowel movement.
    With enemas enter in a direct gut the drug (medicinal enema) local (anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiparasitic), and General actions (sodium salicylate, chloral hydrate, the digitalis and others). Prior (20-30 minutes) put a cleansing enema. The drug is injected in small amounts (30-200 ml) in the form of heat cylinder (or syringe with rubber tip). After injection, the patient should calmly lie down for at least 30 minutes
    Drip enema - one kind of drug. Apply for the introduction of a large (up to 2 l) quantities of isotonic solution of sodium chloride or 5% glucose solution, 4% solution of sodium bicarbonate (izotermicheskoi uraemia and others). Usually use a mug esmarkha. In a rubber tube is inserted dropper and put the screw terminals, which allows to regulate the flow of fluid (usually 60-100 drops per 1 min). The patient should lie on his back, the procedure takes a few hours. Sister should keep fluid intake did not stop and does not cool the solution. To this end mug esmarkha placed in the cotton case, and in the solution put a bottle with water.
    Nutritional enema - see Artificial feeding.
    Diagnostic (contrast) enema applied mainly ray study for the introduction through the rectum contrast agents (see barium enema).