Whooping cough

Whooping cough is a common infection that affects mainly young children. Recently the Soviet health care has made serious progress in the fight against this infection, the best indicator of what is progressive decline in the incidence and the sharp decline in mortality from it.
The causative agent of whooping cough - microbe, having the form of a short sticks. It was opened by the scientists of the Board and to Zhang. Source of pertussis infection is a sick person (from 1 and up to 28 - 30-th day of illness). Thus, already in the beginning of pertussis, when the diagnosis is usually not installed, the patients are very dangerous as sources of infection. An important role in the spread of infection are also sick with the erased form of whooping cough.
The causative agent of whooping cough (wand Board-Zhang) is excreted from the body of the patient with droplets of mucus and phlegm emitted into the ambient air by coughing, and passed susceptible children in the immediate vicinity of the patient, airborne.
Children show a high susceptibility to pertussis and being exposed to the risk of infection, usually get the infection. After suffering pertussis they develop lifelong immunity: re diseases that infection usually does not happen. Such immunity due to the fact that the child's body in the process of interaction with pertussis microbe produces antibodies.
The incubation period of whooping cough lasts from 3 to 15 days (on average 5 to 8 days). The disease begins gradually with the increase body temperature. This increase is usually moderate or even insignificant; in some cases it is not known. From the first days of illness appear cough, which with every day is gradually increases and becomes the main symptom of the disease. In this mood, appetite and sleep patient usually not violated or breached a little.
This initial (catarrhal) period of the disease lasts about a week. At the end of the catarrhal period cough begins to take convulsive character. Develop typical coughing bouts, which grow stronger day by day and frequent, reaching in 1-2 weeks most of its manifestation. The attack is manifested by a series of short, staccato cough tremors, following directly after each other without a break and breathe because of convulsive narrowing of larynx is difficult, lengthy and involves significant sound like singing young cock. Then again followed by cough tremors. During the attack may be several such obstructed breathing ("foot-dragging") and the more, the more severe the disease.
During the attack the man's face is red, bloodshot eyes and tears neck veins swell. The episode ends with a viscous sputum expectoration and often vomiting. The total duration of the attack, depending on its severity ranges from 1/2 to 5 minutes. Picture of attack of whooping cough is very typical, and makes it easier to establish the correct diagnosis.
Coughing bouts, depending on the severity of the disease recur from 5 to 30 and more times a day. Due to frequent convulsive cough face patient becomes puffy, eyelids priuchayut, skin and connective the membrane of the eye may appear hemorrhage.
Frequent cough tired of the child. Vomitingwhich is thrown adopted food, violates his food. However, health and convulsive period, most of the patients suffer relatively little; the temperature is more often a normal appetite - satisfactory.
The period of convulsive cough lasts from 2 to 8 weeks. Gradually the frequency of attacks is reduced, their power is waning and cough loses convulsive character; the disease passes during the so-called resolution, which lasts 2-4 weeks.

Among the complications of whooping cough, which are particularly frequent in children of early age in the first place is inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia). It is the most frequent cause of deaths. A great danger to infants are encountered during a coughing attack seizures seizures with a stop in breathing.
Transferred pertussis weakens a child's body, reduces its resistance to various infections.
With modern methods of treatment started in the early stages of the disease, for pertussis can be greatly alleviated, and the frequency of deaths reduced to nearly zero. An example is the data clinics of Moscow and Leningrad, where the proportion of deaths from pertussis in the last two decades has decreased tenfold and reached a negligible level.
Treatment of patients with severe complicated whooping cough, especially children in the first year of life, should be carried out in the hospital. Other patients can be treated at home, provided systematic medical supervision, currently for the treatment of pertussis and its complications are applied highly effective drugs: antibiotics (streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and others), specific gamma globulin and other treatment Success largely depends on proper organization of patient care. A very favorable impact on the disease has exposure to fresh air: decreases the frequency and severity of coughing bouts, feel better, increases appetite. Great attention is required nutrition, since the presence of frequent vomiting prevents absorption adopted food. Feed frequently, but in small portions, Food should be full, rich in vitamins.
The most important measure to combat the spread of pertussis among children should be early isolation of all patients for the duration of their infectiousness and all children, causing suspicion on whooping cough, to clarify the diagnosis. They are placed in a separate room or to assign them a bed, separated by a curtain or bed sheets. Such children are, of course, do not attend children's institutions. Of particular importance is the isolation of whooping cough patients in the family, in which there is a child's first year of life. You also need to exclude the possibility of meeting with pertussis patients and newborns, we write from the maternity hospital. Children dot 7 years, have been in communication with pertussis patients, subject to separation of 14 days; during this period they do not attend children's institutions.
After isolation of the patient produce cleaning and ventilation; disinfection is unnecessary, as the causative agent of whooping cough outside the body of the patient dies quickly.
However, these measures are of limited effectiveness. Because of the difficulty of recognition of pertussis in the starting period and with atypical (erased) for isolation of patients is usually incomplete and in most cases late.
Drastic measure of prevention of pertussis vaccinations are or active immunization. Vaccinations are produced by injection of the vaccine, representing killed pertussis microbes. In response, the child's body produces antibodies. Subject re-introduction of the vaccine at intervals and in certain doses occurs quite a busy immunity that protects the child against whooping cough. This method is very effective: the incidence among vaccinated reduced by 8-10 times.
Now in the Soviet Union used the so-called associated pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, causing the production of immunity at the same time against several infections. The use of this drug can significantly reduce the number of immunization injections produced each child.
Inclusion in this vaccination drug tetanus toxoid often puzzling parents. Why vaccinate children against tetanus, if the disease in most of the territory of our country is very rare?
Tetanus is really the infection is rare, but it is very dangerous. Tetanus is characterized by severe damage to the nervous system, attacks of painful cramps; very often it ends in death.
Infection with tetanus occurs when the pollution of the earth RAS, even small. In wound fall disputes tetanus Bacillus - pathogen, commonly found in soil. Each contaminated wound is dangerous (though rare) of occurrence of this severe disease.
That's why adding to the pertussis-diphtheria vaccine tetanus toxoid measure is very appropriate.
The first vaccine pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine begins with 5-6 months: three injection at intervals of 30 to 40 days. To support the necessary immunity revaccination after 1.5-2 years after the completed vaccination and at the age of 6 years.
Immediately after vaccination may be a reaction, expressed intermittent fever, malaise, redness and soreness at the injection site. This reaction is completely safe and therefore cannot serve as an obstacle to widespread use of the method of active immunization.
Mass vaccination in combination with aldeproductions activities creates a full possibility to solve the task before us - a sharp decline in the incidence of pertussis in the USSR.

Almost every mother knows that whooping cough is a highly contagious disease of childhood, but not everyone knows what it is dangerous for a child. And many parents even believe pertussis mild illness and I think that it may not cause serious harm. This opinion is deeply erroneous.
Whooping cough can occur in children of early age, starting with the first days of life. Due to insufficient Dating parents with features of this disease is not always correctly organized the care that, on the one hand, brings harm to the patient, and on the other, can contribute to the spread of pertussis.
This is why everyone should know, what is dangerous pertussis, how it is transmitted and distributed, how it flows, and how you can protect a child from the disease and how to treat the sick.