The knee joint pathology

Congenital abnormalities of the knee joint - delicatest of the patella, congenital dislocation of the patella and others - are rare.
It acquired deformations of the knee joint are: genu valgum (allocated knee) - lateral curvature of the tribe, that between the femur and tibia is formed corner, outdoor out. Such bilateral curvature is called X-shaped legs. Genu varum (the tribe) - curvature, where between the femur and tibia is formed corner, outdoor inside. Bilateral curvature is known as the name Of-shaped legs. Curved backwards knee occurs most often after polio (paralysis of the lower leg flexor), rickets, damage to the ligaments of the knee joint, intra-articular and periarticular fractures and other Ankylosis and knee joint contracture caused by ganite (see), injury, polio, spastic paralysis and other
Hemarthrosis is bleeding in the joints is accompanied by majority of injuries of the knee joint. Outlines of the joint when hemarthrosis smoothed circumference increased, determined by the participation of the knee, with a puncture joint - blood. Diagnosis of hemarthrosis the knee joint can be set only after clinically and radiologically excluded other damage. Treatment - suction blood from the knee joint and the imposition of a plaster splint for 10 days; in the future, physiotherapy and balneotherapy. Sometimes in connection with the development of synovitis in the first 10-15 days requires re-sucking from the knee joint.
The gap collateral ligaments. Often there is a gap tibial lateral ligament; at the same time, it may corrupt the internal meniscus. The complete rupture of the ligament is celebrated pain in the knee joint, the leg is easily removed to the side. In case of incomplete torn ligament is determined by the sharp local pain, rejection same knee to the side expressed less sharply. Treatment: in recent cases with partial collateral ligament damage put a plaster cast on 4-6 weeks. The complete rupture - treatment only online.
The gap meniscus is seen only after some time after the injury. The main symptom periodically coming blockade of the knee joint (infringement broken meniscus), accompanied by a sharp pain from the inner or outer side of the joint. The diagnosis to be confirmed on the basis of astropavlograd with the introduction of air into the joint cavity (see Artrografia). When the blockade shows the reduction of the meniscus (performed by a physician). After the reset is shown fixation of the knee joint plaster Longuet on 12-14 days, tearing of the meniscus and repeated blockades - surgical treatment.
Damage to the cruciate ligament, most of the front, rarely rear, can be combined with the tear of the meniscus and collateral ligament. Usually occurs in athletes, dancers at bending the knee with a sharp turn tibia and deviation its outward or inward. Typical cruciate ligament is instability in the joints during walking. Accordingly invalid combination is determined symptom "drawer" (anterior or posterior). Treatment: with sprains and fractures cruciate ligament put a plaster cast on 4-6 weeks. The ineffectiveness of such treatment is surgery.
Dislocations Shin - see Dislocations.
Traumatic dislocation of the patella are extremely rare. Quite often, the dislocation of the patella is innate and occurs when bent at the knee. The patella is always moves outwards. Treatment of congenital dislocation of the patella operational. Wearing a special knee cap or bandage did not work.
The patella fractures are more common in direct trauma (drop by solid object that hit the patella). Marked swelling of the joint, large hematoma, pain in the movement and feeling. Fractures of discrepancies of fragments between them felt retraction (slit). Diagnosis specify chest x-ray. The patella fractures without differences of fragments and discrepancies within 2-3 mm treat plaster cast (sleeve or on the back of Longuet)imposed on 3-4 weeks in position extension in the knee joint. The patella fractures with great divergence of fragments treated promptly.
Intra-articular fractures of the condyles of the femur - see Thigh. Intra-articular fractures of the tibial condyles - see the Shin.
Open injuries of the knee joint in peacetime are relatively rare. The main types of open injuries of the knee joint in the time of war - a gunshot wound.
First aid: the imposition of an aseptic bandage and fixation of a limb, hip, thigh (the outer part of the bus must adhere to the outside of the thigh and torso to the armpit, the inner part to the perineum, back from the buttock crease), leg and foot - tires Kramer or Diterikhs. At transportation of the patient to a considerable distance administered 1 ml of 1% solution of morphine. Any manipulation prior to admission on the knee joint is not carried out.
Diseases of the knee: arthrosis (see), inflammation of the knee joint, drives (see), available articular cartilage of the body - the so-called joint mouse, chondromatosis (see).