Contusion (synonym: General contusion, air contusion, blast trauma) - pathological condition resulting from injury entire surface of the body or the greater part of the influence of air shock wave of the explosion. The concussion possible for blockages in the large masses of loose bodies of sand, small stones (landslides) or bruised water (underwater explosion). For concussion generalized characteristic of the disorder, especially loss of consciousness, the duration of which depends on the severity of injury: in the light cases lost consciousness for a few minutes, with concussion of medium gravity - for 1-4 hours, with heavy for a day or more. This may result in life-threatening disorders of blood circulation and breathing, up to the coma (see), with involuntary discharge of urine and feces. Local signs of injuries often completely absent or insignificant. Simultaneously with the possible concussion and severe local damage - broken limbs, ribs, tears of internal organs, brain injury (see).
After the return of consciousness marked weakness, headache, nausea, sometimes vomiting (regardless of meals). After a head injury especially hours vegetative disorders. Typical violations of hearing and speech, sometimes reaching up to complete phonemate (anomalism). The degree and duration of all these disorders vary depending on the severity of the injury. Deafness may be a stand, if it is related to organic changes of hearing caused by barotrauma (see), heavy destruction which indicates bleeding from the ears. But most of the deaf, and speech disorder (stuttering, dumb) have psychogenic origin and be unstable. Deafness without mutism (silence) with proper treatment usually takes 5-6 days, anomalism lasts up to 1 month. After a severe injury for a long time remains fatigue, irritability, vascular and vegetative disorders.
Treatment. Assisting wounded deprived of consciousness, it is necessary first of all to check his breathing and pulse. When heart disorder injection 20% oil solution of camphor (2-4 ml under the skin), caffeine (1 ml of 10% solution under the skin), disorders of breathing - lobeline (0.5 - 1.5 ml of 1% solution intravenously or intramuscularly), artificial respiration.
It is necessary to carefully examine the victim; detection of fractures impose a bus. Much harder to diagnose the gap on the abdominal organs, as the General poor condition of shell-shocked masks the signs of internal bleeding. Indirect sign may be bloody urine. The victim (except contusion mild) immediately evacuated on stretchers for in-patient treatment. Further requires strict bed rest (with concussion of medium severity of not less than 1-3 weeks), hypnotics and sedatives. In the treatment of hearing-speech disorders plays an important role psychotherapy.