Measles is one of the most common and dangerous childhood infections, the fight against it is an important task of children's health.
Getting measles comes from a sick person who represents a danger from the disease and the first 4 days after the rash appears. The causative agent of measles - filterable virus; it is found in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract of the patient and hence when coughing, sneezing, cry and call spreads through airborne droplets. Droplets containing the virus, currents of air easily dispersed throughout the room where the patient; they can enter the next room, apartment, connected by a corridor. Sometimes the measles virus can be spread by air through the door and the wall, cracks, ventilation tunnels etc.
Susceptibility to measles have both adults and children. But are affected by it usually only children, as almost all adults perebolela this infection in childhood and as a result become resistant lifelong immunity. In modern cities and major towns of the measles incidence is observed almost constantly. Every 2-3 years due to the increased number of susceptible children at the expense of newly-born and young happened epidemic increases in morbidity, which were followed by periods of relative epidemic well-being. In remote areas (on the Islands in the Far North and other) sometimes for several decades is not observed of measles cases. In the case of importation of this infection patients there have extensive epidemic across all population regardless of age, from infants to the elderly.
From the time of infection until the first signs of the disease passes 9-10 days (the incubation period). The disease begins with rise in temperature and the so-called catarrhal phenomena (runny nose, cough, hoarseness, redness of the conjunctiva of the eyes, slezotechenie). After 3-4 days together with. the new rise of temperature on the face and neck, and then on the trunk and extremities there is a red blotchy rash. The period rash lasts 4-5 days. Then the rash disappears, leaving brownish spotting skin, the temperature drops and begins recovery.
Measles significantly weakens the child's body, reduces its resistance to influence of harmful factors, in particular a variety of pathogens. That is why this infection is often accompanied by the development of complications as pneumonia, defeat throat, ears, intestines, etc. Exactly complications are particularly dangerous and are the main cause of deaths. The weakened measles children easily occur exacerbation of chronic diseases: tuberculosis, chronic diseases of the ears, sinus cavities nose, respiratory tract, bowel and other
At the first sign of illness of the child need to call the doctor, which even before the rash establishes the diagnosis of measles, assigns the correct mode, and treatment. Led sick child to hospital should not, because it can infect other children. A sick child, of course, should not attend children's institutions.
Patient measles baby needs a properly organized hygienic mode and loving care. When indicated, for example when there are serious complications, the child should be placed in the hospital, as well as at home continuous medical monitoring, full examination and modern complex treatment difficult.
In the recovery period after measles transition to the normal mode should be carried out gradually, on the advice of a doctor. Given the weakened organism recovering the child, reduced resistance to those or other harmful factors, it is necessary to protect it from various infections, with special care to observe the correct hygienic mode, to provide a varied and balanced diet, rich in vitamins, and sufficient duration of sleep. All sorts of games and activities that cause fatigue of the child, should be avoided.
What you need to do in order to prevent the spread of measles infection? At the first sign of illness of the child should be isolated from other children. Children, who were in contact with the patient, should not attend children's institutions in 17 days.
A highly effective measure against children to communicate with patients, the use of gamma globulin. It is injected intramuscularly. Weight preventive effect depends on the dosage and time that elapsed from the moment of contact of the inoculated with a sick child. Later, the application of this measure (on 6-7-th day) ineffective or even useless. With timely introduction of gamma globulin in the dose of 3 ml in most grafted completely stops the development of measles. However, three weeks later-four the child loses introduced him gamma globulin and again becomes susceptible to this infection. Therefore, children who were in contact with measles is more expedient to introduce a half dose of the drug (1.5 ml). If grafted thus the child is still affected by measles, it is very easily without serious complications. However attenuated measles causes the child's development persistent immunity. Only a weak children and children suffering from other illnesses, through contact with sick measles need to enter the full dose of gamma globulin.
Widely held in the recent past, prevention of measles gamma globulin among children under 4 years are exposed to the risk of infection measles, achieve high impact. This event has been one of the most important factors contributing to the sharp reduction in measles mortality. But even in combination with carefully conducted General preventive measures could significantly reduce the incidence of measles.
An extreme solution, i.e, liquidation of mass incidence of measles, is only possible when applying preventive vaccinations that provides long-term immunity to the infection. This is possible only by immunization with vaccines weakened or killed pathogen, in response to the introduction, the body actively produces antibodies.
Over the past decade in some countries, and particularly strongly in the USSR was conducted research on producing a vaccine against measles. Prof. A. A. Smorodintseva with employees developed the vaccine, which by analogy with foreign vaccine Enders is a culture of measles virus, significantly weakened grown in special conditions. Great experience convinces that dramatically weakened pathogenic properties of this mutated virus again not reversed, that is, the vaccine cannot again become dangerous wild measles virus.
Vaccination is carried out by a single subcutaneous injection of the vaccine. Vaccination shall be the children of 10-12 months.
In some vaccinated through 8-11 days after the vaccine is developing lung disease like measles, characterized by short small or moderate elevation of temperature, crepadona rash and General malaise. All these phenomena, as a rule, expressed moderately or poorly.
Widely tests showed indisputable effectiveness of measles vaccines, the ability to call them in vaccinated expressed immunity. Since 1969, in connection with carrying out of vaccination against measles there is a significant reduction in the incidence of measles in the Soviet Union.
Thus, prevention of measles gamma globulin replaced by vaccination. Gamma globulin retains its value only for the protection of children exposed to measles patients, previously not ill and not immunized against it (mostly for children under 9 months of age).
Currently, there are reasons to expect that began in our country in connection with universal vaccination significant reduction in the incidence of measles will progress. Creates real opportunities for the elimination of the infection.