What are the laws of the work of the cerebral cortex

On the one hand, on the basis of conditioned reflexes were studied in detail the specific mechanisms of activity of the cortex of the brain. The opening of Pavlov was given, therefore, a method for comprehensive study of the patterns of cortical functions.
It was found that the activity of cerebral cortex in the formation of new connections has two sides - the analysis and synthesis. In order to link up with the work of the salivary glands, you need to take this call separately from other sounds, to distinguish it from other irritants. Therefore, first of all bark makes the analysis, it highlights many of the surrounding stimuli those that are signal, i.e. coincide with certain activities of the body. Next bark closes a new link, produces synthesis. Hence, analysis and synthesis in her work closely linked.
The usual reflex is only the simplest form of synthesis. In labs Pavlov developed in dogs for the temporary link to a stimulus in the form of a melody from the three sounds, played on the piano. If these sounds were taken in the same order, tech saliva; if a different order of saliva was not. So, new connections can be produced on a complex combination of stimuli. A typical example of such synthesis is remembering us familiar face. If there are no special signs, we remember not the nose and not the mouth, and it is the combination of all the features of a person. Separately on the lips or on an eye we may not know the closest person.
As shown by Pavlov, the activity of the cortex of the brain is based on two major nerve processes - excitation and braking. An indicator of the presence of these processes in the respective nerve centers was to Pavlov state of the working body, the functions managed by the centre. Excitement is the process by which managed data center, the authority actively functioning. However, according to Pavlov, the nerve cells directed as if outside. Coming to the cells signals excite them, and cells send a reply pulses to other cells in muscle, gland, nervous. In other words, the institution is implementing reflex. Braking is the opposite process, which is very distinctive and is expressed in the fact that, despite reflex stimulation of the center, managed by that authority does not give a response. This process was first discovered in experiments on the frog I. M. Sechenov. It was this discovery Central braking brought him worldwide fame. Pavlov studied inhibition in the cerebral cortex. When a nerve cell is retarded, she turned off from work, stops in response to coming to her signals to send signals to other cells to perform reflex acts. However, inhibited the cell is not idle. She is also active, but in the other direction - on the restoration of their forces. Production of pulses depletes the nerve cell.
The braking process recovers her strength. It means it is also an active process, but directed by the cell inside of itself. Each nerve cell are both major process, which is only different phases of its activities.
Were discovered important laws of interaction of the main nervous processes. It was found that under some conditions, the process of excitation or inhibition, originating in a specific area of the cortex, seeks to expand on the neighboring areas, like diverge circles on the water from a stone thrown into. We know that with great excitement man can't sit still - excitation with the centers where it occurred, spreads on the area of the cortex that control the muscles of the body. Under other circumstances, on the contrary, the excitation or inhibition does not apply, and causes around like a belt opposite process. We know that, reading an interesting book or solving a difficult problem, cannot at the same time successfully to do serious business. Moreover, fascinated, we often do not even hear converted to us words. Therefore, the initiation of certain centers leads to inhibition of other nearby centres. In those cases, when the nerve process spreads around, saying its irradiation. Where it causes in the neighboring centres opposite process, talk about induction.
So, the method of conditional reflexes allowed to explore the specific laws of the work of the cerebral cortex. This is the first aspect of its value.