Nightmare brothers Weber

It has long been observed that the muscle contracts under the action of going to her nerve. If the nerve is damaged, is paralysis of the corresponding muscle. So for a long time it was believed that the heart muscle is reduced with the help of warm nerves familiar anatomists. At the beginning of the last century anatomists knew that the nerves of the heart is wandering and sympathetic - belong to the autonomic nervous system. One could assume that the sympathetic or stray nerves and are used to transmit rhythmic nerve impulses to the heart, so it is reduced.
Brothers Weber Germany decided to check this assumption in the experiment. They proceeded from the fact that the rhythmic pulses are wandering nerves.
The brothers were three: Ernst Heinrich Wilhelm Friedrich and Edward. Senior, Ernst, subsequently describe the logarithmic dependence of the strength of feeling on the strength of irritation, created with the participation of mathematics Fechner,the law Weber-Fechner.
In the first experiment involved Ernst and Wilhelm. They logically assumed that if vagus (neuros vagus - Latin name of the vagus nerve) is stimulating infarction signals, with electrical stimulation of nerve heart should decrease and remain in this state until the end of irritation.
Nerve obediently lies down on the annoying electrodes induction coil, fortunately, there has been created a few years before the experience, which entered the history of physiology.
- Turn!
There is something strange and unexpected: heart Really stop, but not in systole and diastole, relaxed... it takes a few seconds stimulation and appear weak and rare heartbeat, gradually increasing in intensity and frequency, but not reaching any initial strength or frequency.
"Turn it off!
Short-term acceleration of the rhythm - and again the heart contracts as if nothing had happened, as it was in the early experience...
It happened one of the biggest coups in physiology was opened nervous braking, in this case, the deceleration of the heart. Here is the time to say what braking Weber observed in most experiments, but when they applied weak irritation of the vagus nerve, sometimes seen opposite result: reduction of heart became more frequent. With strong irritation of the nerve and the more both nerves simultaneously) braking heart was always come. Ernst and Wilhelm Weber conscientiously put all his observations in the article, but comforted by the fact that the stimulating effect of the vagus nerve was rare, and rule - braking heart. Therefore, the General conclusion in the article was made in the sense that the vagus nerve impact on reducing the heart (on their strength and frequency) braking. When all the grandeur of opening Weber brothers were seriously scared them and stop further research in this area. Experiments continued younger brother Edward, who found the same patterns that and older. In their "Physiological dictionary" Eduard Weber reiterated old conclusion: the parasympathetic (i.e. vagusnye) irritation leads to inhibition of cardiac activity.
All this happened in the first half of the XIX century. After Veerami tens and hundreds of physiologists have embarked on the difficult path of studying the parasympathetic braking, and they all, with rare exceptions, describing the results of their observations, noted that sometimes instead of the brake effect has been arousing. These many good experiences did not pay anyone's attention on wagusnye excitement of the heart, but only from time to time. Meanwhile, this stimulating effect wandering nerve heart is very important for our story, and we urge the reader to not forget about this strange phenomenon.