Bone grafting

Bone grafting (synonym, osteoplasty) is an operation to transplant bone tissue, with the aim of substitution of bone defects, restore integrity or change the shape of the bone and accelerate healing of fractures. Bone plastic is also used to limit their mobility or complete immobilization of joints (fusion).
For bone grafting is used: 1) transplant free, devoid of parent soil; 2) the transplant on the leg with the periosteum (for example, using cut heel bone to strengthen the stump on Pirogov).
As a free bone graft is used more often part of a bone taken from the patient (autoplastika) from the rib of the tibia or Ilium. Take less piece of bone from another person or of a corpse (homoplastic). This applies not fresh bone grafts, and processed at low temperatures. Animal bone for bone grafting (heteroblastic) is rarely used.
Bone plastic widely used in the treatment of non-consolidation of fractures and false joints (see) and defects of bones. However, depending on the location and nature of false joint, and also size of defect are different.
Apply the following types of bone grafting.
1. Simultaneous intra - and out-of bone marrow method bone autoplasty when non-consolidation of fractures of the tubular bones. One transplant (without periosteum) introduce in the medullar channel, and the other (periosteum) - put outside in a prepared bed on both fragment and fix kedgotoline ligatures. Grafts (pins) are more likely to take from tibial bones. Recently for intraosseous fastening of fragments instead of bone pin sometimes use the metal bar (see Osteosynthesis), and outside leave the same bone graft.
2. In the treatment of false joints, slow formation of callus apply bone chips. They are placed around the bone fragments with the subsequent fixation limbs plaster cast.
3. For elimination of defect in one of the pair of bones of the lower leg or forearm, in addition to transplant free, enjoy a stopover one bone to another. When the operation Ghana defect tibia replace the end of the peroneal.
4. Bone grafting transplant on the leg with the periosteum used in plastic bones of the skull; for this purpose use of bone-periosteal graft, a cut in trepanation of the skull. Bone defects of the lower jaw can fill the transplant with the periosteum, taken from the rib or scallop Ilium.
Cm. also Plastic surgery.