Tumors of bone tissue

Tumors of bone tissue occur mainly in children's and young age. Distinguish between benign and malignant tumors.


Fig. 1. Chondroplasty finger. Fig. 2. Chondrosarcoma distal femur.

Malignant tumors are more common in males. The most frequent localization - tubular bones. Primary malignant tumors include osteosarcoma, periosteal sarcoma, chondrosarcoma (Fig. 2), fibrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, retikulosarkoma, hemangioendothelioma, myeloma; to secondary tumors that grow in the bones of the surrounding soft tissues, and metastasis of cancer and sarcomatoid tumors in the bone. Benign tumors: osteoma, osteogennaya osteoma, osteochondroma, chondroplasty (Fig. 1), osteoblastoclastoma (giant cell tumor), fibroma, hemangioma.
Clinical course and symptoms of bone tumors depend on their morphological structure and localization. Most of benign tumors is characterized by the slow development, asymptomatic course. Are detected by x-ray or yourself with the feeling. Violation function of the leg and the pain appear when a large tumor when she starts to squeeze tendons or nerves. For osteodes osteomas and giant cell tumor is characterized by the appearance of pain in the early period of its development. When chondroma distal limbs and long-existing giant cell tumors often observed pathological fractures.
The main clinical signs of malignant bone tumours are: pain, swelling, impaired function of the limbs, pathological fracture, metastases.
Most malignant flow osteogenic sarcoma, which detected early hematogenic metastasis to the lungs. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by intermittent pain, General weakness, fever, leukocytosis, accelerated ROHE. Unlike other tumors of the bone, when Ewing sarcoma can be observed metastases in lymph nodes and other bones (skull, spine and other). Similar clinical picture has retikulosarkoma. Fibrosarcoma and chondrosarcoma develop more long-term; the clinical picture is less pronounced. Main diagnostic method for tumours of bones is an x-ray [radiography (see), tomography (see) and angiography (em.)], which allows you to specify character of destructive changes in the bones, to identify the features of blood supply to the tumor tissue. Biopsy (see) produced by open or closed method in unclear cases and to clarify the histological structure of tumor at the choice of treatment method. A biopsy may be performed only in the specialized oncological institution.
For the treatment of bone tumors apply online, radiation, chemotherapy, and combined methods. Patients with benign tumors most often used sparing surgery - removal of the tumor or resection of the bone. Radiation therapy is indicated for giant cell tumors and hemangiomas. In malignant tumors appropriate to apply the combined methods of treatment are surgery and radiation (before surgery) or chemotherapy (before and after surgery). Surgical treatment is amputation or assertequal affected limb (in cases of osteosarcoma). In the treatment of sarcoma Uinga and retikulosarkoma good effect receive as a result of radiation therapy and chemotherapy (sarkolizin). Radiation therapy is expedient to use the sources of high energy gamma-therapeutic units, linear accelerators, and the betatron. During radiation therapy, and after the immobilization of the affected limb because of the risk of fracture in the process of resorption of the tumor. If you suspect a tumor of the bone tissue is contraindicated physiotherapeutic procedures (heat, massage , and so on).
Forecast for benign bone tumors favorable. The exception is gianthorsecocks tumor, which in some cases may develop into malignant; in malignant tumors of bone prognosis is poor.