Urticaria

The hives - a disease characterized by the sudden appearance of the skin, less often on mucous membranes, blisters - edematous, sharply demarcated elements rash, has strong similarities with the rash arising from the sting.
In the etiology and pathogenesis of urticaria significant role belongs to the neuro-allergic mechanisms, intoxication, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Often in patients with urticaria, find helminthic invasion, giardiasis, the centers of focal infection. In some cases, urticaria caused idiosyncrasies (see) to various food products, medicines.
Rash with urticaria has pink or pinkish-white color, rounded or irregular shape, different size (from 2-5 mm up to 10-15 cm and more) and various localization. Rash always accompanied by itching or a burning sensation. They can be surface or to spread deep into the subcutaneous fatty tissue, forming large sites, the so-called giant urticaria (Fig. 1). In rare cases, on the surface blisters can occur bubbles or hemorrhage. In some cases, the swelling can be expressed so weak that they see only the rash of spots, sometimes in the form of rings (Fig. 2). Usually with urticaria rash disappears without a trace, but in some cases on the spot rash remains pigmentation.

urticaria
Fig. 1. Giant hives (urticaria gigantea). Fig. 2. Chronic (recurrent) hives (urticaria recidiva). Fig. 3. Annular hives (urticaria circinata). Fig. 4 and 5. Urticaria with pigmentation (urticaria retinitis). Fig. 6. Urticaria cum pigmentatione.

There are acute and chronic recurrent urticaria.
Acute urticaria occurs suddenly and disappears after a few hours or days. The appearance of the rash often accompanied by malaise, headache, joint pain, etc., In some cases there is swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (rhinitis, paroxysmal cough, difficulty breathing), intestine and stomach (quickly passing diarrhea, vomiting), as well as phenomena of conjunctivitis.
Chronic urticaria (Fig. 3) proceeds for a long time (sometimes years). Lesions occur periodically and disappear in a few hours, appearing again at an indeterminate time (often daily, or at longer intervals).
Rare atypical form of chronic urticaria is a persistent papular urticaria. In this form on the limbs, facial edema dense knots yellowish-brown color with the size from 2-3 mm to 10 mm Nodules can be several weeks after their liquidation remains persistent pigmentation (Fig. 4).
A form of urticaria is urticarnae dermographism (artificial urticaria)that occur in response to mechanical stimulation of the skin. However swollen redness first match of the square of the stimulus, and then beyond its borders.
In children aged between 6 months and 6-7 years old children there are so-called urticaria, or scrofulous. This form of the disease is close to the prurigo. It is characterized by the appearance on the extensor surfaces of the legs, buttocks, palms of hands and soles of small dense knots juicy pink, the surface of which there is a bubble or bloody crust. The rash appears outbreaks and stay for 2-3 weeks and then disappear, leaving pigmentation. Similar attacks of the disease can last for several years. Later disease in some cases goes in atopic dermatitis (see) or prurigo (see Prurigo).
Treatment is the removal of opportunistic diseases; application desensitizing funds (chloride calcium 10 ml of 10% solution or sodium thiosulfate 10 ml of 30% solution intravenously, course - 10 injections), laxatives, antihistamines (diphenhydramine 0.03 g 3 times a day, suprastin 0,025 g 3 times a day and others in 2-3 weeks); nonspecific stimulating therapy (autohemotherapy and others); in acute outbreak injection of adrenaline (subcutaneously to 1 ml of 1 : 1000 solution), pipolfen (intramuscular injection of 1-2 ml of 2.5% solution), in particularly persistent cases corticosteroids inside by a doctor.
Children dosages prescribed depending on the age of the child.

Urticaria refers to allergic to neyrodermatozov.
She may receive from different reasons. For example, some people are sensitive to insect bites, colors, paints, synthetic fabrics: kapron, nylon, and other Perlon
Especially often called urticaria food (eating crayfish, oysters, eggs, coffee, liver, lard, smoked sausage, spicy cheese, chocolate, mushrooms and other) and medicines (penicillin, streptomycin, sulfidina, aspirin, quinine).
Urticaria is characterized by strong itch, patients often for combing resort to the help of brushes, scrapers, and other Waldersee rash do not have a specific symmetry localization, they are scattered across the skin, often disappear in one place to instantly appear on the other. Often the rash captures the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, pharynx, larynx, eyebrows, causing swelling of the nasopharynx, which can lead to suffocation.
Treatment. Through detailed questions the doctor finds out the root cause of the appearance of the rash. In all cases of acute urticaria advised to take into 20%solution of magnesium sulfate in table spoon 2-3 times a day after meals. To reduce the excitability of the nervous system in patients prescribed bromide quinine, suprastin, diphenhydramine.
When food forms of urticaria useful to designate a minimum number of product-allergen, which does not transfer the patient. Assign intravenous infusion of calcium chloride, sodium hyposulphite, sodium bromide, autohemotherapy, subcutaneous injection of epinephrine, pilocarpina, antihistamines (Dimedrol, promethazine). They can be taken within 2-3 weeks. Remember: the abuse of these drugs leads to drowsiness, exhaustion, apathy. These drugs should not use transport workers (drivers, pilots, vagonooborota and others).
Local soothing itching funds have effect as zonal ultraviolet irradiation, while also rubbing solutions containing alcohol, menthol, ether. An example of such a solution: menthol 1 g, ether and alcohol 25 grams of glycerin 5 g of distilled water 120 g (RUB into the skin 2-3 times a day). In chronic relapsing forms of urticaria useful acupuncture.
In order to prevent ill, last underwent hives or suffering from recurrent its form, must comply with the diet. Itchy spots on the skin should be cleaned with alcohol or vodka. To avoid abrasions the scratching of the skin cuticles iodine tincture.