Dyes (occupational health) - substances which in connection with various materials give the last color. There are natural and synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes are widely used in all industries and household. On chemical structure dyes in most organic compounds (aromatic, heterocyclic with benzene rings). The most widely produced and used azo dyes (see), sulfur, di -, triarilmetanolovy, antrahinonovye, indigene, cyanide and other
Working conditions in production and application of dyes - see aniline-dye industry, Textile industry. The chemical industry. Many of employed in these industries dyes have expressed General toxicity (sulphur, yellow Martius, water-soluble nigrosine, the main dark blue 2K, di - and triphenylmethane, antrahinonovye): strike the upper respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, blood, cause a breach of the Central nervous system. The majority of the studied dyes can cause photosensitivity and disease in the form of allergic dermatitis and eczema. At painting works dyes and their intermediates enter the body through the skin; their toxicity is enhanced by solvents. Some dyes explosive (aurantia, picric acid, and others). Described cases of poisoning when working with chrome- and lead-containing paints. A large number of dyes, particularly groups of azodyes, has expressed carcinogenic effect.
Prevention of poisoning dyes: sealing of production equipment and effective ventilation jobs; introduction of more advanced methods of manufacturing of the coating (spraying, elektropakete, electrostatic coating and so on); the equipment of sanitary facilities (see); provision of employees with protective clothing (see Clothes, protection at work), individual protective means (see Respirator).
First aid in case of poisoning dyes - see Aniline, Poisoning.