Lupus erythematosus

  • Discoid and disseminated lupus erythematosus
  • Lupus erythematosus is a chronic disease of infectious-allergic nature, related to the group kollagenozov and manifested either in the form of General pathological process (systemic lupus erythematosus), or mostly skin (discoid and disseminated lupus erythematosus).
    Lupus is characterized by a wave-like and often progressive course. In the basis of the pathological process is widespread damage of blood vessels and connective tissue.
    The etiology is unknown. Onset and exacerbation often associated with provoking factors: ultraviolet and x-ray irradiation, hypothermia, pregnancy, abortion, and also reception of medicines (antibiotics, sulfonamides, and others).
    The clinical picture. Systemic lupus erythematosus are mostly women aged 20 to 30 years. Clinical manifestations of the disease are very diverse. The disease often starts gradually with migrant arthralgias, myalgias, fatigue, rarely with acute high temperature, acute arthritis, polyserositis, jade and other Main symptoms are chills, fever wrong type, characterized by the persistence to antibiotics, migratory arthralgia, myalgia , and arthritis. Affects mainly interphalangeal, wrist and ankle joints, sometimes knee , etc. there are changes in the skin: erythema on the nose and zygomatic arches - "butterfly"; erythematous rash on his forehead, the lobes of the ears, scalp, hands, less often on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity; the defeat of the serous membranes bilateral pleural effusion, pericarditis, rarely peritonitis as perihepatitis and periplaneta. Often marked change from the kidneys from mild transient albuminuria to heavy nephrotic syndrome. More often observed diffuse glomerulonephritis with the tendency to develop secondary wrinkled kidneys (see Jade).
    Can be observed also defeats and some other organs and systems: pneumonitis, vasculitis and interstitial processes in the lungs, focal and diffuse myocarditis, atypical warty endocarditis with the development of heart disease, meningoencephalitis, mality, neuritis. Marked generalized enlargement of lymph nodes, a moderate increase of the spleen and liver, and changes in blood - reducing the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, accelerated ROHE and detection volcanotectonic phenomenon (LE-cells) to a variety of anti-nuclear antibodies ( DNA, DNP, integral kernels).
    Systemic lupus erythematosus. may be acute, subacute and chronic depending on the severity of the disorder, speed generalization process, the effectiveness of treatment and duration of subsequent remission.
    The diagnosis is based on a combination of these symptoms and the presence in the blood LE-cells.
    The forecast. The systematic and long-term care (years) the majority of patients live more than ten years, the proportion of patients die in 3-5 years from the beginning of illness with symptoms of progressive renal failure or defeat of the Central nervous system.
    Treatment. In the complex treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus corticosteroids occupy a leading place. The initial dose and duration of treatment with hormonal therapy should be determined by the doctor. In subacute disease apply hingamin (delagil, Raskin) inside of 0.25 g 2 times a day for 10 days, then 0.25 g 1 a day after dinner. With focal infection-penicillin intramuscularly in a dose of 200 000 IU 4 times a day or tetracycline per os for 200000 UNITS 3-4 times a day. Use vitamins: B1 5% - 1 ml; B6 5%-1 ml and B12 100 mcg intramuscularly daily in turn; inside - ascorbic acid 0.2 g 3 times a day and Riboflavin 0,005 and 3 times a day. Patients meals should be high in protein and vitamins. Contraindicated physiotherapy and Spa treatment.
    Prevention of systemic lupus erythematosus is to prevent relapse. People who get the disease should be under medical supervision.