Rubella in the past were among the lightest, the so-called small infections. The incidence of it is poorly recorded and taken into account. She is not attracted the attention of researchers, therefore, was very poorly studied. Interest to rubella only increased over the last three decades, after the Australian doctor Gregg (1941) has shown that this "small" infection is not harmless and disease by her pregnant women may cause severe birth defects in children. Studies conducted in recent years in different countries, revealed many secrets of this disease.
Rubella is found as a small outbreaks and epidemics, sometimes receiving significant size. So, in the USA, in 1964, was observed extensive epidemic, affecting nearly 1 million 800 thousand people. Sick of it mostly children from 2 to 10 years. In the USA and some Western European countries, there are frequent diseases rubella adults and including women during pregnancy.
In the USSR the disease rubella among adults are rare, mass destruction them this infection is not observed.
Exciter rubella - filterable virus; properties it is now well understood. Infection occurs from a sick person, which allocates the virus within a few days of onset and loses gain popularity 5 days after rash rubella rash.
It is established that often rubella flows hidden asymptomatic. Persons that carry this form of the disease, can also serve as a possible source of infection.
The spread of the infection occurs airborne approximately with the same intensity as in measles. Pregnant women if they rubella even in asymptomatic form can be a source of intrauterine infection of the fetus.
Latent period rubella lasts, on average 18 days (from 15 to 21 days).
Beginning of the disease is manifested by a small rise in temperature, usually up to 38 C, and rash; often in the course of disease temperature remains normal. General condition of the patient is not usually impaired. Patients are observed slight runny nose and cough.
Rash in the form of pale-red spots appears on the face, neck, and within a few hours spreads throughout the body.
The typical sign rubella is swelling zaznacanych, occipital and other lymph nodes. Swollen lymph nodes are enlarged to the size of a large pea, plotnosti and slightly painful to the touch. The increase zaznacanych and cervical nodes sometimes determined by eye.
Complications rubella very rare.
Much more important are severe pathological processes developing in embryo (embryo and fetus at occurrence of rubella in clinically expressed or asymptomatic form in pregnant women. When their disease in the first three months of pregnancy, the embryo often (20-30%) develops rubella infection with severe lesions of the various bodies developmental defects: underdevelopment of the brain, deafness, severe eye damage, heart defects, and so on, in case of infection With rubella women in the later stages of pregnancy viral lesion of the baby at birth are manifested in the form of anemia, liver, bones, lungs, and so on, These children excrete the virus to 18 months or more after birth and can be a source of infection to others.
Thus, infection with rubella, last disparagingly referred to as minor illness, for pregnant women is associated with a greater risk of giving birth to a handicapped child suffering from severe malformations.
Naturally, therefore, prevention is given very high priority.
Child, sick rubella, subject to isolation up to 5-th day from the date of rash. Special attention should be paid to the preservation of pregnant women, previously not ill with rubella, from communicating with patients with this infection. If a pregnant woman had the opportunity to catch or even fell ill with rubella, some foreign scientists recommend prevention lesions of the embryo and fetus to enter her gamma globulin. However, the effectiveness of this method is acknowledged. American authors in case of contact women in the first months of pregnancy with a sick rubella offer to terminate the pregnancy. To decide on the application of this radical measures, of course, very difficult. This question can be given only for scrutiny of the diagnosis of rubella and circumstances of the contact. The final decision it is the right of the mother.
Abroad and in the USSR successfully developed vaccination against rubella. The issue of vaccination against rubella was widely discussed at a special international conference of physicians in 1969
Appropriate active immunization girls before childbearing period. However, more research is needed and surveillance and first of all clarify the degree of risk of rubella cases of young women in our country.