Rubella is an acute infectious disease caused filterable virus. The virus quickly perishes in the external environment.
The source of infection is a sick person in the prodromal period and in the first 5 days of the onset of rash. Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Usually ill children at the age from 6 months up to 10-12 years. After the disease remains stable lifelong immunity.
The incubation period for rubella 10-23, often 16-18 days. Prodromal period, manifested mild symptoms often go unnoticed. For 1 to 3 days before the rash has increased lymph nodes, especially in the occipital, soon disappearing. In the shed there may be a slight hyperemia and small red spots on a pale pink background (anathema). Simultaneously with the increase of temperature up to 37-38° appears fine not merging pale pink rash, slightly protruding above the skin. Quickly spreading, localized rash on the extensor surfaces of the arms, legs, back, buttocks, but most of all on the face. The rash disappears after 3 days without peeling and pigmentation. The General condition of the little disturbed.
Adult rubella severe. The disease rubella women in the early months of pregnancy can cause malformations of the fetus.
Complications: otitis, pneumonia, polyneuritis, encephalitides. Should differentiate measles, which are observed spots Velsky - Filatova - kaplica expressed catarrhal phenomena, stages rash rash. Unlike rubella, enterovirus the disease can begin more acutely be accompanied by vomiting; rash that appears when the temperature drops, larger, abundant, is located evenly across the surface of the skin; may increase liver and spleen. The prognosis is favorable.
Treatment of symptomatic.
Prevention is to limit contacts with patients, which is especially important for pregnant women.