Sacral region


The sacral and the bordering areas:
1 - sacral;
2 - buttock;
3 - vertelney.

Sacral region is bounded from above the line on the level of the wings of the Ilium, bottom - the beginning of anal folds on the sides vertically corresponding to the wing of the Ilium with both sides (Fig. ). Bone base sacral area are sacrum and coccyx, so it is also called sacrococcygeal.
The sacrum consists of five fused vertebrae. The basis of the sacrum articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra and the top of it is connected with horns coccyx. On the back of the sacrum felt three crest: the middle unpaired, intermediate and outer pair; there are the sacral spinal holes facing rear branches of the sacral nerves and blood vessels. On the front surface of the sacrum there are four holes through which the pelvis includes front branches of the sacral nerves that form the sacral plexus and Vienna, anastomosis with the veins of the pelvis.
On the front surface of the sacrum are median sacral artery and vein. In the lateral parts of branched side vertebral artery. In the sacral canal in the meninges concluded roots sacral, and coccygeal nerves. In the intervertebral holes are the sacral spinal nodes. The coccyx consists of 4-5 underdeveloped vertebrae, decreasing from the top down.
Leather within sacral area thin, sedentary, not enough vascularized, so in critically ill in the sacral region are often formed bedsores. In the superficial fascia and a thin layer of subcutaneous fat lie surface of the rear branches of the sacral nerves and veins; for subcutaneous layer are the fascia and muscle, straightening the trunk.
Injury sacral area can lead to fractures of the sacrum and damage to the organs of the pelvis. At gunshot wounds sacral area there are various injuries of the sacrum (regional, perforated, and comminuted), the sacral nerves and blood vessels, there osteomyelitis.
In the sacral region are observed osteomyelitis and infectious origin (typhus). Tuberculosis sacrum differs slow flow and may be complicated by the cold abscess (see Matecznik) and the formation of fistulas (see).
In sacral area in children occur congenital tumor - teratoid tumors, young people 20-25 years - epithelial cysts, which can also end with the formation of an abscess and fistula. From benign tumors in the sacral region are often observed chordoma, and from malignant - sarcoma.