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Blood fluid

Blood liquids (blood, plasma-substituting solutions - solutions for parenteral introduction (subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous)used to replenish the volume of circulating in the blood line of fluid removal from the body of toxic substances, and also with the purpose of parenteral nutrition (for example, if it is not receiving food through the mouth after burn of the esophagus, operations, etc). The introduction of blood fluids may excluding the blood group of the patient. Most of them do not possess sensitizing (see Allergic) effect and does not cause anaphylactoid reactions. According to the classification of the Leningrad Institute of blood transfusion (TEVA) all blood fluid divided into the following groups: 1) salt crystalloid solutions; 2) blood fluid to components of human blood; 3) colloidal blood liquids with colloids, alien to the human body - from heterogeneous protein, blood liquids with colloids of plant origin and synthetic colloid solutions; 4) antishock solutions with special medical purpose; 5) protein hydrolysates.
Salt crystalloid solutions (solutions ringer, ringer - Locke, TEVA № 3, salt infusion COLIC and others) have a low molecular weight, compared with protein and colloidal and quickly removed from the blood stream. Their shows to introduce, if necessary, immediate replacement of the liquid in the organism during dehydration, as well as acute blood loss (especially complex salt blood fluid, such as salt infusion COLIC), intoxication and other (see Izotoniceski solution).
Blood liquid part of the blood - zerocrossing studied, albumin solution, solutions dry plasma - have a high molecular weight and slowly removed from the blood stream, well support blood pressure. Their shows to apply in shock, blood loss, burns, and in the treatment of pathological processes, accompanied by dehydration. At their introduction pathological reactions usually does not develop.
Blood liquids with colloids, alien to the human body, - BK-8, therapeutic serum Belenky (educate) and others - at the mechanism of action is similar to blood liquids to components of human blood and are used for the same reasons. However, some of them with the re-introduction may lead to the phenomenon of anaphylaxis (increased sensitivity of the organism). Therefore, before infusion of necessary test reactivity (see below). Of blood fluids of this group is the most widely used synthetic colloid solutions - poliglyukin, polivinilpirrolidon, polivinol and gemodez.
Poliglyukin - 6% colloidal solution at izotonicescom solution of sodium chloride) macromolecular compounds - polymer of glucose. Due to the large molecular weight, is close to the molecular weight of blood albumin, poliglyukin when injected into the bloodstream for a long time it is circulated throughout the day in the blood is charged 40% of the administered drug. Has the most pronounced for shock effect. Intravenous and vnutriarterialno introduced to 2,000 ml With large blood loss and extensive burns begin infusion with poliglyukina because it is faster than blood, raises blood pressure, and then move to a transfusion of blood or plasma.
Polivinilpirrolidon - polymeric compound; 3,5% polyvinylpyrrolidone solution is called gambinion. On an anti-shock properties gambini inferior poliglukine, but surpasses salt blood fluid.
Polivinol - 2,5% colloidal solution of polymer compounds, it is close to the solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Apply the blood loss and shock intravenous and vnutriarterialno up to 1 l
Gemodez - solution containing 6% of low-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone and sodium ions, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine. Gemodez has the ability to bind toxins, circulating in the blood, and accelerate the excretion through the kidneys. The drug increases renal blood flow, increases clubockova filtering and increases diuresis. Gemodez apply at toxic forms of acute gastrointestinal diseases, with burn disease in the phase of intoxication, infectious diseases, hemolytic disease, and toxemia of newborns. Misleading intravenous drip 300-500 ml (children 7 to 10 ml/kg) at a rate of 40-50 drops per 1 minute (with the introduction of high speed possible reduction of blood pressure, tachycardia, shortness of breath).