Hemoptysis - allocation of blood from the respiratory tract when coughing. Hemoptysis is observed in the lungs (tuberculosis, injuries, tumors, abscess, heart attack, pneumonia, the echinococcosis, syphilis), sometimes with the stagnation of blood in the lungs due to heart disease (stenosis of the left atrioventricular holes), as well as laryngitis, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tumors of the mediastinum. The admixture of blood in the sputum is caused by the violation of the integrity of the blood vessel, or the creation of a rich red blood cells (hemorrhagic) inflammatory exudate.
Blood in the sputum may appear as streaks or large quantities (pulmonary bleeding). It is not always easy to distinguish hemoptysis from bleeding from the stomach. When blood spitting blood frothy, Alai, stands out when coughing. Gastrointestinal bleeding is preceded by nausea, ending vomiting. Vomit usually the color of coffee grounds.
The treatment should be directed at the underlying disease. During the acute bleeding prescribe bed rest, with the upper half of his body should be moderately elevated; transfusion of small amounts of blood (100 - 200 ml); vitamin K (1 ml of 1% solution vikasola intramuscularly); intravenous hypertonic solution of chloride calcium (10 ml 10% solution), sodium chloride (10 ml 10% solution). Morphine should not be used as, reducing cough reflex, it promotes blood aspiration and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia.
When hemoptysis tubercular etiology in case of failure of conservative therapy shows the imposition of pneumothorax and even urgent resection of the lung or thoracoplasty.