Bruises are formed from the perpendicular (or close to it) in relation to the body surface of a blunt solid object. This break blood vessels in the skin and underlying soft tissues. Poured out the blood penetrates tissues that accumulates under the skin and is revealed in the form of bruises. In the first hours after the occurrence of a bruise has a reddish-purple colour, and then becomes blue-purple color due to a shift of oxyhemoglobin restored in hemoglobin. A blood clot that formed blood elements apart, restored hemoglobin goes into methemoglobin, which gradually turns into verzogerungen with green color, then becomes brownish-green. Verzogerungen, decaying, is replaced by biliverdin. By this time recovered and vascularization damaged tissues, and biliverdin goes into bilirubin, causing (on 5-6-th day) the emergence of a yellowish color of the bruise. Uneven thickness bruise predetermines its unequal "bloom" from the periphery to the center. After 6 to 8 days bruise becomes three-color: brownish yellow on the periphery with a greenish shade in the Central zone) and purple-blue - in the centre. Small bruises disappear completely within a week. The intensity of algal bruise depends on its size and extent, location, age of the victim and others, the deeper is localized bleeding, the longer it does not manifest painting bruise. Hemorrhage, located in the sclera and under mucous membranes, do not change its original color over time because of the access of oxygen and its diffusion from the ambient air.

bruises from shock belt
Fig. 14. Bruises from shock belt.

If you have the appropriate anatomical conditions bruise able to move (when the blows in the forehead be painted eyelids, when struck in the upper part of the thigh bruise is found in the hollow of the knee). In the form of a bruise in some cases it is possible to judge about the peculiarities of the path of damaging the surface of the object (for example, hard strap) (Fig. 14).
The formation of a large number of bruises may be accompanied by the development of the syndrome rich blood loss, in connection with which the research bodies, in addition to the length and width of a bruise, you need to measure and thickness (to determine the amount of blood shed abroad).
Bruises occur in closed injuries of the organs or bone fractures and represent levels with the formation of cavities, at times, containing up to 1.5 l curtailed or liquid blood.
Depending on the localization of hematomas and its values are observed clinical symptoms compression bodies (especially EPI - and subdural hematoma).