Phlebotomy - extracting blood from the blood stream (from a donor or therapeutic purposes).
Bloodletting causes a decrease in the number of circulating blood, which is accompanied by lower blood pressure. Then comes compensatory polyplasmia (blood-thinning) through intensified outflow of lymph from the interstitial spaces and the decrease of blood viscosity.
The recoverable amount of blood ranges from 200 to 600 ml Typically select 400 ml of blood. Simultaneous retrieval of large amounts of blood to produce not recommended because of the danger of collapse (see).
Perform phlebotomy method of venipuncture (see) or venesection (see), at the puncture artery. Bloodletting is better to make in the dressing room or the treatment room. If the patient cannot be moved, the bloodletting carried out directly in bed. The patient should not see, how do bloodletting since the type of blood can cause him to faint. When bleeding the patient must be in a horizontal position. The hand must be based on a solid support (couch), in the position of maximum extension, which under elbow enclose oilcloth pillow and the blanket, one end of which is lowered into the pelvis. The blood is collected in a graduated or the known capacity of the vessel. The skin at the injection site disinfected with alcohol. When the bloodletting must be adhered to asepsis (see). For bloodletting method venepuncture taking the needle large caliber (needle dufot), put on a rubber tube through which the blood will flow in the vessel. To keep blood curdled, the needle should be well washed with 5% solution of sodium citrate. During phlebotomy nurse must have proper tourniquet is applied should be prosuvalisya pulse on a radial artery). After extracting the required number of blood removed the harness, and the puncture site impose crowding sterile bandage. After the bloodletting in 15-20 minutes, the nurse should monitor the condition of the patient (the color of the skin and heart rate), because there may be fainting. In mild cases of fainting is enough to bring to your nose cotton wool soaked in liquid ammonia. If this does not help, it is recommended to enter subcutaneously to 1 ml of 10% solution of caffeine-benzoate sodium.
Bloodletting from Vienna applied to reduce the load on the heart in heart failure (especially in pulmonary edema), reducing the number of erythrocytes during their surplus, for the removal of toxic products contained in the blood when exogenous intoxications.
Contraindications: shock, collapse and other conditions accompanied by a fall in blood pressure, anemia, malnutrition, and pronounced sclerosis brain vessels, especially in the elderly.