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Resorts - areas with natural curative resources (mineral waters, therapeutic muds, the favorable climate and others), where there are special facilities and installations for treatment and recreation of patients.
In tsarist Russia there were several dozens of resorts and 60 health centers for 3000 seats (1913), migrant resorts were not available.
In 1919 Century I. Lenin signed a decree on the therapeutic areas of national importance, according to which "Therapeutic areas and resorts, where would such on the territory of the RSFSR were and who would belong to, with all the constructions, buildings and movable, serving previously resort and located at the attached and affiliated with the resort lands that are property of the Republic and used for therapeutic purposes". By the same decree the Department of resorts was imposed on the people's Commissariat of health. In December 1920, C. I. Lenin signed the decree "About using Crimea for treatment of workers", according to which "the beautiful villas and mansions, which were used before the large landowners and capitalists, the former palaces of the tsars and Grand princes should be used under the sanatorium and resorts of workers and peasants".
These and subsequent Soviet government decrees and decisions of the people's Commissariat of health were determined ways of development of resort business.
The huge scale of new construction and growth of resorts, sanatoria and rest houses during the years of Soviet power shown by the following figures. On the territory of the USSR on January 1, 1971, there were 2233 sanatorium on 440000 places, 1213 rest homes and boarding houses for 308 000 places; in these institutions in 1970 were treated and rested 10 138 000 people; the vast majority of workers and employees receive vouchers to sanatoriums and rest houses at the expense of the social insurance and state, that is, free of charge or pay only 30% of the ticket price. On schematic maps (Fig. 1-5) shows the placement of the resorts on the territory of the USSR.
Main principles of organization of health resort business in the USSR following. 1. Strictly scientific justification for the use of natural medicinal resources and organization of medical Affairs. 2. The availability of resort treatment for the entire population; treatment of workers, children, adolescents, and also disabled persons of the means of special appropriations of the state, trade unions and other organizations. 3. Proper medical screening of patients for treatment on the resorts. 4. The close link and continuity between the resort treatment and treatment on the spot.
In 1960 the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the sanatorium (except tuberculosis and children), rest houses, Spa clinic, clinics and boarding houses were transferred to the management of trade unions.
Practical guide of health resort business, and organization of rest of workers in the USSR the Central Board for management of resorts of trade unions, in the Union republics - Republican, in separate places and areas - territorial Council on management of the resorts of trade unions. Overall management of the network of resorts and sanatoriums for TB patients, as well as child health centers by the Ministry of health of the USSR, and direct control of the Ministry of health of the Union republics and health authorities. Problems of balneology - study resort resources of the country, the mechanism of action of resort factors on the organism and the most effective methods of their application and elaboration of principles of organization, planning and construction of resorts deals with Central research Institute of balneology and physiotherapy of Ministry of health of the USSR, institutes of balneology and physiotherapy in the Union republics, individual institutes and laboratories of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR, a number of faculties of medical institutes, institutes of advanced training of doctors and research laboratory under the jurisdiction of the Central Council on management of the resorts of trade unions.
In section VI of the "Bases of the legislation of the USSR and Union republics on health care indicated that the recognition of resort areas, establishment of boundaries of districts of sanitary protection of resorts and determination of their regime are made by the Council of Ministers of the USSR or by the Council of Ministers of a Union Republic on joint representation of the Ministry of health of the USSR Council of trade unions or of the Ministry of health of the Union Republic and the Republican Council of trade unions agreed with the Executive Committee of the respective local Council of deputies, on which territory is located the resort. Organization and opening of a sanatorium-and-Spa institutions are allowed with the permission of the Ministry of health of the USSR and the all in agreement with the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic. Coordination of activity of sanatorium-and-Spa institutions on the use of medical means and resort factors and organization of sanatorium-and-Spa treatment, regardless of their subordination, is relevant bodies for management of resorts. The Ministry of health, Ministry of health, Union and Autonomous republics exercise control over the organization of treatment-and-prophylactic work in the sanatorium-and-Spa institutions, and also give them the scientific-methodical and consulting assistance.