Laboratory (medical). Depending on the objects and tasks of the research are distinguished clinical-diagnostic laboratory; sanitary-bacteriological laboratory of sanitary-epidemiological stations with offices: bacteriological, parasitological, especially dangerous infections, Toxicological, radiological and other; laboratory at educational and research institutions, clinics serving institutions and producing thematic research work; pathological laboratory; the laboratory of special purpose - physiological, pharmacological, balneological, forensic, professional pathology, aviation and space medicine and other common profiles medical laboratories following.
Clinical - diagnostic laboratory are part of the medical institutions (hospitals, polyclinics, dispensaries, etc.,). These laboratories may consist of a Department of the General clinical research, biochemical, serological, cytological and bacteriological offices. Composition of laboratory offices, the volume of their work, research and sizes of States are determined by specialization, number of beds in hospitals or doctor's offices ( policlinics) medical facilities, which includes the laboratory.
In clinical diagnostic laboratories produce clinical tests, hematological, biochemical, microbiological and serological. It includes General clinical analysis of urine, faeces, sputum, separated genitals; examination of body fluids, produced by sensing - gastric juice, duodenal contents; material obtained through the puncture (puncture),- spinal fluid, liquids of various body cavities. To haematological analyses include morphological examination of cells of blood, determination of physico-chemical properties. Biochemical tests can be performed in the clinic-diagnostic laboratory, but when a large volume of works is organized independent biochemical laboratory (determination of the concentration of various substances in body fluids: urine - chloride, urea, amylase and other blood - sugar, cholesterol, residual nitrogen, transaminases, bilirubin, calcium , and many other ingredients). Microbiological testing in clinical-diagnostic laboratory are often restricted by bacterioscopy - the presence of tubercle bacilli in the sputum, gonococcus in the discharge of genital. More complex microbiological and serological studies carried out in special bacteriological laboratories (see Bacteriological laboratory).
The laboratory of sanitary-epidemiological stations (SES). One of the main structural units of the SES is the sanitary-bacteriological laboratory. It has several departments: bacteriological, virus-rickettsioses, housing and communal sanitation, food hygiene, industrial hygiene.
Part of a major SES also organized sanitary-chemical, parasitological, radiology, laboratory, etc. In the sanitary-bacteriological laboratories produce microbiological studies on identification of pathogens of enteric infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, anaerobic infections, ricketsiosis, brucellosis and tularemia (serology), malaria, anthrax, worm infestations and diseases caused by protozoa; sanitary-bacteriological analysis of water, food, air, rinse with various objects, studies with food poisoning; sanitary-hygienic researches of food on the benignity, GOST, residual content of pesticides and other; sanitary-hygienic examination of drinking water, domestic water and industrial wastewater; research related to the protection of atmospheric air and air of industrial premises; surveys of residential and public premises (microclimate, illumination, the content of carbon dioxide and other).
In the sanitary-chemical laboratory produce analyses to determine the composition of food products, tests on chemical pollution of environmental objects. Parasitological studies aimed at the identification of affected population by helminthes and pathogenic protozoa, pollution of their soil, water, food. In the radiology Department measure radioactive radiation from various objects, ionization of the atmosphere, etc.,
In pathological laboratories, which organize at postmortem offices (see) major hospitals, observing the changes of organs and tissues associated with certain diseases.
The laboratory should be separated from the other rooms of medical institutions; as a rule, it has several rooms - auxiliary and proper laboratory facilities. The number of the latter is determined by the amount of work and profile of the laboratory. It is unacceptable to produce in the same room hematological and clinical research, should be a separate room for biochemical and microbiological analysis.
In the sanitary-bacteriological laboratories necessary boxes for crops order to obtain pure cultures.
Separately are additional premises for reception of a material for tests and registration of analyses, washing, pressure, Srebarna.
The useful area of the laboratory premises should be 7.5-10 L3 per worker; premises height of not less than three meters. The laboratory should be well lit (lighting jobs - not less than 300 Lux with light 100 LX) and have a good supply and exhaust ventilation and fume hoods.