Lactation - allocation of milk in the breast. Lactation - complex neurohumoral process in which the main role plays the lactogenic hormone (see)produced by the pituitary gland, the activity of the latter is under the control of the hypothalamus. In the regulation of lactation participate cortex hormones of the adrenal gland, thyroid gland and serverelement processes. The relationship of the breast with the Central nervous system through powerful receptor apparatus embedded in the skin of the nipple and areola, and in the prostate. Therefore, for the development of lactation and further its conservation is of great importance regular breast-feeding.
On the first day after birth is allocated a small number of colostrum (see), with 2 - 3-day - molozivnyi milk, with 4-5-th day - transitional milk. The final composition of breast milk (see) acquires 2-3 weeks. The increase secretions may occur gradually, reaching a high intensity per day 4-5; with the rapid development of lactation on the 3-4th day after birth Breasts for several hours sharply increased in volume, are tight and painful, body temperature may rise. This lasts for 1-2 days, after which provided a good emptying of the breast is set to normal lactation. In nulliparous sometimes there late lactation: milk production begins only on 5-6-th day and later, slowly increasing in 3 weeks. In the future, the secretion of milk gradually and continuously increases, reaching a maximum of between 10 and 20 weeks and remaining at that level until the end of the lactation period.
The duration of lactation depends on the individual characteristics of the breast and the development of her parenchymatous elements and how long the mother is breastfeeding. To ensure a good lactation, pregnant should be trained in the techniques of breathing exercises that improve blood circulation , and improve tone of the mammary glands. For 1.5 months. before the birth recommended systematically massage breast. After birth, from the first days the mother has to follow the rules exactly breast feeding (see Feeding children), to Express the milk residues after each feeding. Great value for a good lactation has the right daily routine nursing: regular nutritious meals, during the winter period it is necessary to take drugs, vitamins C, b, D and A. it is Important regular exposure to fresh air, a sufficient number of hours of sleep. Violation of the regime of the day and feeding regime, fatigue, mental experiences, as well as acute and chronic diseases of nursing (diabetes mellitus, jade, tuberculosis and others) can lead to decrease for milk (so-called secondary hypogalactia). In older nulliparous, and young - at a weak development of the mammary glands may develop primary hypogalactia. The complete lack of allocation of milk (agalactia) is observed very rarely.
If one regime cannot improve lactation in nursing appoint prolactin intramuscularly (5 IU 2-3 times a day for 5-6 days), vitamin E oil (10-15 mg of tocopherol in receiving 2 times a day for 10-15 days; sometimes good effect has nicotinic acid inside (0,04-0,05 g 2-3 times a day, 10-15 min. before feeding the child for 10 - 12 days).
Sometimes there is a spontaneous flow of milk from the breast or outside during feeding - galactorrhea, not requiring special treatment; avoid maceration of the skin on the breast impose gauze bandages.