Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol (Laevomycetinum; synonym Chloramphenicolum; list B) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Applied for the treatment of typhoid and paratyphoid, dysentery, brucellosis, whooping cough, pneumonia, gonorrhea, purulent infections, tularemia, typhus, typhoid, trachoma, fever and other Drug is usually assign inside for 20-30 minutes before meals in powder or tablet 0.25-0.75 grams (usually 0.5 g) 3-4 times a day. Treatment depending on the disease within 4 to 10 days; in recurrent disease is 2-3 weeks. Perhaps the use of chloramphenicol in the candlelight, and externally in the form 1-10% liniment or 0.25% aqueous solution (eye drops). When the use of chloramphenicol may be allergic reactions, diarrhoea disorders, changes in the blood; prolonged use can lead to fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes (candidiasis). The drug is contraindicated in psoriasis, eczema, fungal and other skin diseases. Dosage form: tablets 0.1 g, 0.25 g and 0.5 g; candles containing 0, 1 g, 0.25 g, 0.5 g, and 0.6 g chloramphenicol; 1% ointment (eye). Keep in dark place. Cm. also Antibiotics.

Chloramphenicol (synonym: chloramphenicol, chlormycetin, Paracin, formication) - antibiotics isolated from the culture fluid Streptomyces venezuelae. Was also received by synthetic, which became the main method of receiving chloramphenicol.
It is soluble in water, easily in alcohol, propylene glycol, temperature PL 150,5-151,5 degrees. Very stable in dry condition; in aqueous solutions does not lose activity at the temperature of 37 degrees per month, and boiling - over 5 hours. Sustainable wide shifts in pH.
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. To him most sensitive gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, pathogenic Rickettsia, some of the major viruses and certain fungi. Tolerable upper intake of chloramphenicol for white mice, the introduction of per os - 1500 mg/kg LD50-2640 mg/kg intravenously to rats, rabbits cause the death of all the animals in doses of 50-225 mg/kg LD50-110-280 mg/kg In a subcutaneous LD50 equal 245 mg/kg
Chloramphenicol is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when administered orally, obnarujivaesh in significant quantities in the blood (maximum within 2 to 4 hours after taking the antibiotic), rapidly distributed in various organs after oral intravenous and intramuscular injection and is excreted in the urine over a short period of time (6-8 hours after administration of L. practically disappears from the blood).
Chloramphenicol has found wide application in medical practice. He is the only antibiotic that has a pronounced therapeutic effect of typhoid fever. HP is prescribed in the treatment ricketsiosis, bacterial dysentery, pneumonia, surgical infections, some viral diseases. Applies per os. Daily intake for adults 1-4 g (evenly every 6-8 hours).
The most frequent side effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, General fatigue; serious complications: the defeat of blood-forming organs, oppression of bone marrow, pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
Cm. also Antibiotics.