Nutritional care for children

Therapeutic nutrition is one of the main factors in the overall complex of therapeutic measures for any illness of the child. Pathogenetically justified therapeutic nourishment often has a determining impact on the course and outcome of the disease.
Well-organized health food contributes to the favorable course of the disease, increasing the protective forces of the body, activates for anabolic processes that ultimately lead to restoration of health.
When medical nutrition therapy should be taken into account many factors: the age of the child, the nature of the disease, especially the pathogenesis and disorders of metabolism, the stage to the stage of the disease, the applied treatment. Of no less importance should be given to the composition of the set of products (taking into account the peculiarities of pathology), quantitative proportions of individual nutrients in the diet, the way of cooking food, diet and so on,
Currently, scientifically substantiated the necessity of adequate nutrition of sick children, with the early period of the disease.
It is well known that long-term food restrictions tolerated by children heavier than adults. In children arise phenomena dystrophy. This circumstance is explained by the relatively high need child's body in food substances (per 1 kg of body weight), which is connected with intensive growth and voltage metabolic processes.
In this regard, it is now considered impractical to conduct a long sharp quantitative and qualitative restriction of food even for diseases such as acute intestinal infections.
It is established that patients who receive full and adequate food from the first days of the disease, recover faster, disease they rarely takes a protracted course, the number of complications is reduced.
Restriction of food is allowed only for a short period at the beginning of the disease or exacerbation during the period of severe intoxication, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, high fever, aversion to food. You must enter a patient enough liquid. After a short restrictive period in food should gradually (within 1-4 days) switch to full power.
For most diseases, the need of a sick child in nutrients and calories close to that in healthy children, depending on age. However, in some diseases in connection with pronounced catabolic and metabolic disorders need for essential nutrients changes [Ladoga K. S., 1977-1987].
Special attention in the diet deserves the protein component. It is established, that under such conditions as malnutrition, chronic pneumonia, bronchiectasis, burn disease, with the aim of indemnification of losses of protein, raise protective forces of an organism, strengthening of reparative processes, normalization of metabolic processes, it is expedient increase in medical diets quotas protein.
Of no less importance now attached to a fatty component of a diet. It is shown that in cases of eczema, pneumonia, lesions of the upper respiratory tract in therapeutic diets, it is expedient to increase the quota vegetable fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, a positive force for activation of regenerative processes.
A large role the carbohydrate component. So, allergic diseases, some forms of eczema in order to reduce allergic reactions were obtained good results in the application of a diet with reduced or changed composition of carbohydrates.
According to A. A. Pokrovsky (1966-1972), the task of clinical nutrition comes to the restoration of violated the conformity between the enzyme constellation sick organism and chemical structures of food. Thus, the therapeutic effect of clinical nutrition focused on changes in the structure of tissues, metabolism and activity of many enzyme systems in a sick body.
Very important for medical nutrition therapy to take into account the stage of the disease. Depending on the stage of the process - acute phase, chronic activation of the process, the stage of reparation and so on - must change diet techniques.
When assigning a therapeutic feeding the child needs to take into account the nature of the received drug therapy. With long-term use of hormonal preparations, in connection with strengthening of catabolic processes, increasing demands, in therapeutic diets impose increased amounts of protein and foods rich in potassium. Prolonged use of antibiotics and sulfonamides may occur deficiency of folic acid. Therefore, in the supply of these patients should be introduced foods rich in folic acid (these include the liver, cauliflower, leafy greens).
Great attention should be given to the power of a sick child. With most diseases, it is expedient to increase the number of meals 5-6 times a day. This allows to reduce the intervals between meals and decrease its amount at each meal. This relatively uniform distribution of food throughout the day ensures better assimilation of nutrients that allows you to restore the damaged functions of the body.
Currently, there is no doubt that the position that the rational treatment of a sick child is possible only when following the main pathogenetic dietary principles, so how nutrition in combination with other therapeutic measures provides normalization of a complex chain of metabolic processes of the growing organism.

  • Food for allergic
  • Food in rickets
  • Food with malnutrition
  • Food with anemia
  • Nutrition in acute respiratory diseases
  • Nutrition in acute intestinal diseases